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|Centuries:||17th century – 18th century – 19th century|
|Decades:||1690s 1700s 1710s – 1720s – 1730s 1740s 1750s|
|Years:||1723 1724 1725 – 1726 – 1727 1728 1729|
|1726 by topic:|
|Arts and Sciences|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature (Poetry) – Music – Science|
|Canada – Great Britain –|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2479|
|British Regnal year||12 Geo. 1 – 13 Geo. 1|
— to —丙午年十二月初九日
|- Vikram Samvat||1782–1783|
|- Shaka Samvat||1648–1649|
|- Kali Yuga||4827–4828|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||726–727|
|Japanese calendar||Kyōhō 11
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 11 days|
|Minguo calendar||186 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2269|
- February 8 – Supreme Privy Council is established in Russia
- April 15 – Isaac Newton tells William Stukeley the story of how he developed his theory of gravity.
- May 1 – Voltaire begins exile in England.
- July 11 – André-Hercule Cardinal de Fleury, recalled from exile by King Louis XV of France, banishes Louis Henri, Duc de Bourbon, and Madame de Prie from court.
- August 7 – Pirate Nicholas Brown captured near Xtabi, Jamaica
- November – Mary Toft allegedly gives birth to 16 rabbits in England; the story is later revealed to be a hoax.
- December 24 – The city of Montevideo is founded by the Spaniards.
Date unknown 
- Jonathan Swift published Gullivers travels
- The Supreme Privy Council is established in Imperial Russia.
- The Gujin tushu jicheng, an immense Chinese encyclopedia, is printed using copper-based movable type printing.
- The remaining ruins of Liverpool Castle are finally demolished.
- Muhammad bin Saud becomes head of the House of Saud.
- January 14 – Jacques-Donatien Le Ray, French supporter of the American Revolution (d. 1803)
- March 8 – Richard Howe, British admiral (d. 1799)
- April 5 – Benjamin Harrison V, signer of the American Declaration of Independence (d. 1791)
- April 8 – Lewis Morris, American landowner and developer, signer of the United States Declaration of Independence (d. 1798)
- April 12 – Charles Burney, English music historian (d. 1814)
- April 20 – Joseph de Ferraris, Austrian cartographer of the Austrian Netherlands (d. 1814)
- May 12 – Alexander Hood, British naval officer (d. 1814)
- June 3 – James Hutton, Scottish geologist (d. 1797)
- June 14 – Thomas Pennant, Welsh naturalist (d. 1798)
- June 20 – Louise Henriette de Bourbon, mother of Philippe Égalité (d. 1759)
- July 30 – William Jones (1726–1800), (d. 1800)
- August 7 – James Bowdoin, American Revolutionary leader and politician (d. 1790)
- August 9 – Francesco Cetti, Italian Jesuit scientist (d. 1778)
- September 1 – François-André Danican Philidor, French composer and chess player (d. 1795)
- October 16 – Daniel Chodowiecki, Polish painter (d. 1801)
- date unknown
- John H. D. Anderson, Scottish scientist (d. 1796)
- Le Quy Don, Vietnamese philosopher, poet, encyclopedist, and government official (d. 1784)
- Cyprian Howe, Colonel in the American Revolutionary War (d. 1806)
- Katsukawa Shunsho, Japanese woodblock artist (d. 1792)
- Jedediah Strutt, English businessman (d. 1797)
- January 2 – Domenico Zipoli, Italian composer (b. 1688)
- January 25 – Guillaume Delisle, French cartographer (b. 1675)
- February 26 – Maximilian II Emanuel, elector of Bavaria (b. 1662)
- March 5 – Evelyn Pierrepont, 1st Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull, English politician
- March 26 – John Vanbrugh, English architect and dramatist (b. 1664)
- April 26 – Jeremy Collier, English theatre critic, non-juror bishop and theologian (b. 1650)
- April 28 – Thomas Pitt, British Governor of Madras (b. 1653)
- May 10 – Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans, English soldier (b. 1670)
- June 18 – Michel Richard Delalande, French organist and composer (b. 1657)
- July 8 – John Ker, Scottish spy (b. 1673)
- July 22 – Hugh Drysdale, British Colonial Governor of Virginia
- July 31 – Nicolaus II Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (b. 1695)
- November 23 – Sophia, Princess of Zelle, queen of George I of Great Britain (b. 1666)
- December 2 – Samuel Penhallow, American colonist and historian (b. 1665)