|Angle of the mandible|
Human skull. Position of angle of the mandible shown in red.
1870s American male skull. The angle of the mandible is visible just above the white number.
The angle of the mandible, which may be either inverted or everted, is marked by rough, oblique ridges on each side, for the attachment of the masseter laterally, and the pterygoideus internus medially; the stylomandibular ligament is attached to the angle between these muscles.
The forensic term for the midpoint of the mandibular angle is the gonion.
The mandibular angle has been named as a forensic tool for gender determination, but recent studies have called into question whether there is any significant sex difference in humans in the angle.
Position of angle of the mandible (shown in red). Animation.
Mandible bone. Position of angle shown in red.
Mandible. Outer surface. Side view. (Angle labeled at bottom right.)
Mandible. Inner surface. Side view. (Angle visible at bottom left.)
The Pterygoidei; the zygomatic arch and a portion of the ramus of the mandible have been removed.
Mandible. Inner surface. Angle of mandible labeled at bottom right.
- Upadhyay, RB et al. (January 2012). "Analysis of gonial angle in relation to age, gender, and dentition status by radiological and anthropometric methods.". PubMed.
- Gungor, Kahraman et al. (2007). "Evaluation of the Gonial Angle in the Anatolian Populations: From Past to Present" (PDF).
- Angle+of+mandible at eMedicine Dictionary
- lesson4 at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University)
- Anatomy photo:34:st-0202 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Oral Cavity: Bones"
- Anatomy diagram: 34256.000-2 at Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator, Elsevier
- Anatomy image: skel/mandible2 at Human Anatomy Lecture (Biology 129), Pennsylvania State University