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|Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis)|
J.R.Forster & G.Forster
All Artocarpus species are laticiferous trees or shrubs that are composed of leaves, twigs and stems capable of producing a milky sap. The fauna type is monoecious and produces unisexual flowers; furthermore, both sexes are present within the same plant. The plants produce small, greenish, female flowers that grow on short, fleshy spikes. Following pollination, the flowers grow into a syncarpous fruit, and these are capable of growing into very large sizes. The ovary is superior in this species. The stipulated leaves vary from small and entire (Artocarpus integer) to large and lobed (Artocarpus altilis), with the cordate leaves of the species A. altilis ending in a long, sharp tip.
The name Artocarpus is derived from the Greek words "artos" ("bread") and "karpos" ("fruit"). This name was coined by Johann Reinhold Forster and J. Georg Adam Forster, a father and son team of botanists aboard the HMS Resolution on James Cook's second voyage, and is maintained as a conserved name.
Most species of Artocarpus are restricted to Southeast Asia; a few cultivated species are more widely distributed, especially Artocarpus altilis and A. heterophyllus, which are cultivated throughout the tropics.
Several species in the genus bear edible fruit and are commonly cultivated: Artocarpus altilis (Breadfruit), A. integer (Cempedak), A. heterophyllus (Jackfruit), A. hypargyreus (Kwai Muk), A. lakoocha (Lakoocha), A. kemando (Pudau), A. hirsutus (Anjily), A. chaplasha (Chaplaish) and A. odoratissimus (Marang). In the most recent revision of Artocarpus, the highly variable species A. communis contains the following three species of breadfruit: A. altilis, A. mariannensis and A. camansi. Artocarpus hirsutus provides timber suitable for household use and is widely grown in the Western Ghats ("anjily" in Malayalam). The fruit of A. hirsutus have a sweet, edible pulp, while the seeds can be dry-roasted for eating.
Breadfruit and jackfruit are cultivated widely in the tropical Southeast Asia. Other species are cultivated locally for their timber, fruit or edible seeds.
Recent phylogenetic research, based on leaf arrangement, leaf anatomical characters and stipules, indicates that there are at least two subgenera in Artocarpus:
- Subgenus Artocarpus: Perianth of fruit is partially connate.
- Subgenus Pseudojaca: Perianth is entirely connate.
The genus Prainea is closely allied to the subgenus Pseudojaca, and some researchers treat it as a third subgenus of Artocarpus. The following list still follows the traditional line.
Selected species 
- A. altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg - Breadfruit, Seeded Breadfruit, Antipolo, Camansi, Anubing
- A. anisophyllus Miq. - Entawak
- A. blancoi (Elmer) Merr.
- A. camansi Blanco
- A. chama Buch.-Ham. - Chaplaish
- A. elasticus Reinw. ex Blume - Bendo, Terap
- A. gomezianus Wall. ex Trécul
- A. heterophyllus Lam. - Nangka, Jackfruit
- A. hirsutus Lam. - Angily, Angelin, Hirsute Artocarpus, Aini Maram, Aini
- A. hypargyreus Hance ex Benth. - Kwai Muk
- A. integer (Thunb.) Merr. - Cempedak
- A. kemando Miq. - Pudau
- A. lacucha Buch.-Ham. - Lakoocha
- A. lignanensis Merr.
- A. mariannensis Trécul
- A. nitidus Trécul - Butong
- A. nobilis Thwaites
- A. odoratissimus Blanco - Marang
- A. ovatus Blanco
- A. rigidus Blume - Monkey Jackruit
- A. rubrovenus Warb.
- A. sarawakensis F.M.Jarrett - Pingan
- A. scortechinii King - Two Winged Artocarpus
- A. sericicarpus F.M.Jarrett - Pedalai
- A. tamaran Becc. - Elephant jack
- A. tonkinensis A.Chev. ex Gagnep.
- A. treculianus Elmer - African breadfruit
- "Artocarpus J. R. Forst. & G. Forst.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2009-01-16. Retrieved 2009-03-11.
- Zerega, Nyree J. C.; Diane Ragone; Timothy J. Motley (2005). "Systematics and Species Limits of Breadfruit (Artocarpus, Moraceae)". Systematic Botany 30 (3): 603–15. doi:10.1600/03636440yy54782134.
- GRIN. "Species in GRIN for genus Artocarpus". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
- "Name - Artocarpus J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. subordinate taxa". Tropicos. Saint Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
- "Query Results for Genus Genus". IPNI. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
- Possible subgenera of Artocarpus
- Nyree Conrad Zerega- Dissertation Topic : Phylogeny of the genus Artocarpus (Moraceae), with a focus on the systematics, genetics, conservation, and biogeography of breadfruit
- Zerega, NJC and TJ Motley. 2001. Artocarpus (Moraceae) molecular phylogeny and the systematics and origins of breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis. Presented at the Botanical Society of America annual meeting, Albuquerque, NM, August 12 – 16, 2001.