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Bar (Ukrainian: Бар; Polish: Bar) is a city located on the Rov River in the Vinnytsia Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Barskyi Raion (district), and is part of the historic region of Podolia. The current estimated population is 17,776 (01.nov.2011).
The city was a small trade outpost named Row. In the 16th century, Polish Queen Bona Sforza founded a fortress at the rock over the river and named it Bar, after her home town of Bari in Italy. In 1540, Polish King Sigismund I the Old granted the nearby town with city rights. The fortress was besieged several times in its history and was considered unbreakable. However, during the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648 it was captured by the cossacks under Maxym Kryvonis and severely damaged. The town was depopulated soon afterwords.
In 1672, it was captured by the Ottoman Empire and became a seat of the local administration. On November 12, 1674, the town and the fortress were recaptured by the forces of John III of Poland after four days of siege. But Ottomans recaptured the city in 1675 and retained it until 1686 (nominally until 1699). It was constantly ravaged by Turks and Poles between 1686 and 1699. On February 29, 1768, the Bar Confederation was started in the fortress. After the Second Partition of Poland the town fell under Russian rule and was part of Podillia Governorate. A famous 19th century mathematician, Viktor Bunyakovsky was born in the city in 1804. Jacobo Timerman, a Jewish editor, was also born in Bar in 1923, but his family emigrated to Argentina in 1928, where he fought the Dirty War with his editorials. After 1922 the city was part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and since 1991 in independent Ukraine.