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|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||179.17 g/mol|
187 - 188 °C
240 °C (dec.)
|MSDS||Material Safety Data Sheet|
(what is: /?)|
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Hippuric acid (Gr. hippos, horse, ouron, urine) is a carboxylic acid found in the urine of horses and other herbivores. Hippuric acid crystallizes in rhombic prisms which are readily soluble in hot water, melt at 187 °C and decompose at about 240 °C. High concentrations of hippuric acid may also indicate a toluene intoxication, however, scientists have called this correlation into question because there are other variables that influence levels of hippuric acid. When many aromatic compounds such as benzoic acid and toluene are taken internally, they are converted to hippuric acid by reaction with the amino acid, glycine.
Hippuric acid is readily hydrolysed by hot caustic alkalis to benzoic acid and glycine. Nitrous acid converts it into benzoyl glycolic acid, C6H5C(=O)OCH2CO2H. Its ethyl ester reacts with hydrazine to form hippuryl hydrazine, C6H5CONHCH2CONHNH2, which was used by Theodor Curtius for the preparation of azoimide.
Justus von Liebig showed in 1829 that hippuric acid differed from benzoic acid, and in 1839 determined its constitution, while in 1873 Victor Dessaignes synthesized it by the action of benzoyl chloride on the zinc salt of glycine. It was also formed by heating benzoic anhydride with glycine, and by heating benzamide with monochloroacetic acid.
- Pero, RW (2010). "Health consequences of catabolic synthesis of hippuric acid in humans". Current clinical pharmacology 5 (1): 67–73. PMID 19891605.
- A. W. Ingersoll and S. H. Babcock, "Hippuric acid", Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 2: 0328
- Dessaignes V. (1853). "Ueber die Regeneration der Hippursäure". Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie 87 (3): 325–327. doi:10.1002/jlac.18530870311.
- Curtius T. (1884). "Synthese von Hippursäure und Hippursäureäthern". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 17 (2): 1662–1663. doi:10.1002/cber.18840170225.