Clave: Spanish for 'code,' or key,' as in the key to a puzzle. The antecedent half (three-side) consists of tresillo. The consequent half consists of two strokes (the two-side). Play ( mentions several innovations of Machito's Afro-Cubans; they were the first band to: wed big band jazz arranging techniques within an original composition, with jazz oriented soloists utilizing an authentic Afro-Cuban based rhythm section in a successful manner; explore modal harmony (a concept explored much later by Miles Davis and Gil Evans) from a jazz arranging perspective; and to overtly explore the concept of clave conterpoint from an arranging standpoint (the ability to weave seamlessly from one side of the clave to the other without breaking its rhythmic integrity within the structure of a musical arrangement). They were also the first band in the United States to publicly utilize the term Afro-Cuban as the band's moniker, thus identifying itself and acknowledging the West African roots of the musical form they were playing. It forced New York City's Latino and African-American communities to deal with their common West African musical roots in a direct way, whether they wanted to acknowledge it publicly or not.
Dizzy Gillespie, 1955
Dizzy Gillespie and Chano Pozo
Mario Bauzá introduced bebop innovator Dizzy Gillespie to the Cuban conga drummer and composer Chano Pozo. Gillespie and Pozo's brief collaboration produced some of the most enduring Afro-Cuban jazz standards. "Manteca" (1947) is the first jazz standard to be rhythmically based on clave. According to Gillespie, Pozo composed the layered, contrapuntal guajeos (Afro-Cuban ostinatos) of the A section and the introduction, while Gillespie wrote the bridge. Gillespie recounted: "If I'd let it go like [Chano] wanted it, it would have been strickly Afro-Cuban all the way. There wouldn't have been a bridge. I thought I was writing an eight-bar bridge, but ... I had to keep going and ended up writing a sixteen-bar bridge." The bridge gave "Manteca" a typical jazz harmonic structure, setting the piece apart from Bauza's modal "Tanga" of a few years earlier.
Gillespie's collaboration with Pozo brought specific African-based rhythms into bebop. While pushing the boundaries of harmonic improvisation, cu-bop, as it was called, also drew more directly from African rhythmic structures. Jazz arrangements with a "Latin" A section and a swung B section, with all choruses swung during solos, became common practice with many "Latin tunes" of the jazz standard repertoire. This approach can be heard on pre-1980 recordings of "Manteca", "A Night in Tunisia", "Tin Tin Deo", and "On Green Dolphin Street".
Mongo Santamaria (1969)
Cuban percussionist Mongo Santamaria first recorded his composition "Afro Blue" in 1959. "Afro Blue" was the first jazz standard built upon a typical African three-against-two (3:2) cross-rhythm, or hemiola. The song begins with the bass repeatedly playing 6 cross-beats per each measure of 12/8, or 6 cross-beats per 4 main beats—6:4 (two cells of 3:2). The following example shows the original ostinato "Afro Blue" bass line. The slashed noteheads indicate the main beats (not bass notes), where you would normally tap your foot to "keep time."
"Afro Blue" bass line, with main beats indicated by slashed noteheads.
When John Coltrane covered "Afro Blue" in 1963, he inverted the metric hierarchy, interpreting the tune as a 3/4 jazz waltz with duple cross-beats superimposed (2:3). Originally a Bb pentatonic blues, Coltrane expanded the harmonic structure of "Afro Blue."
Perhaps the most respected Afro-cuban jazz combo of the late 1950s was vibraphonist Cal Tjader's band. Tjader had Mongo Santamaria, Armando Peraza, and Willie Bobo on his early recording dates.
In the late 1940s there was a revival of "Dixieland" music, harkening back to the original contrapuntal New Orleans style. This was driven in large part by record company reissues of early jazz classics by the Oliver, Morton, and Armstrong bands of the 1930s. There were two types of musicians involved in the revival. One group consisted of players who had begun their careers playing in the traditional style and were returning to it or continuing what they had been playing all along. This included Bob Crosby's Bobcats, Max Kaminsky, Eddie Condon, and Wild Bill Davison. Most of this group were originally Midwesterners, although there were a small number of New Orleans musicians involved. The second group of revivalists consisted of younger musicians, such as those in the Lu Watters band, Conrad Janis, and Ward Kimball and his Firehouse Five Plus Two Jazz Band. By the late 1940s, Louis Armstrong's Allstars band became a leading ensemble. Through the 1950s and 1960s, Dixieland was one of the most commercially popular jazz styles in the US, Europe, and Japan, although critics paid little attention to it.
By the end of the 1940s, the nervous energy and tension of bebop was replaced with a tendency towards calm and smoothness, with the sounds of cool jazz, which favoured long, linear melodic lines. It emerged in New York City, and dominated jazz in the first half of the 1950s. The starting point was a collection of 1949 and 1950 singles by a nonet led by Miles Davis, released as the Birth of the Cool. Later cool jazz recordings by musicians such as Chet Baker, Dave Brubeck, Bill Evans, Gil Evans, Stan Getz and the Modern Jazz Quartet usually had a "lighter" sound that avoided the aggressive tempos and harmonic abstraction of bebop.
Cool jazz later became strongly identified with the West Coast jazz scene, but also had a particular resonance in Europe, especially Scandinavia, where figures such as baritone saxophonist Lars Gullin and pianist Bengt Hallberg emerged. The theoretical underpinnings of cool jazz were set out by the Chicago pianist Lennie Tristano, and its influence stretches into such later developments as bossa nova, modal jazz, and even free jazz.
Hard bop is an extension of bebop (or "bop") music that incorporates influences from rhythm and blues, gospel music, and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing. Hard bop was developed in the mid-1950s, partly in response to the vogue for cool jazz in the early 1950s. The hard bop style coalesced in 1953 and 1954, paralleling the rise of rhythm and blues. Miles Davis' 1954 performance of "Walkin'", at the first Newport Jazz Festival, announced the style to the jazz world. The quintet Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers, fronted by Blakey and featuring pianist Horace Silver and trumpeter Clifford Brown, were leaders in the hard bop movement along with Davis.
Modal jazz is a development beginning in the later 1950s which takes the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Previously, a solo was meant to fit into a given chord progression, but with modal jazz the soloist creates a melody using one or a small number of modes. The emphasis in this approach shifts from harmony to melody. Pianist Mark Levine states: "Historically, this caused a seismic shift among jazz musicians, away from thinking vertically (the chord), and towards a more horizontal approach (the scale)."
The modal theory stems from a work by George Russell. Miles Davis introduced the concept to the greater jazz world with Kind of Blue (1959), an exploration of the possibilities of modal jazz and the best selling jazz album of all time. In contrast to Davis' earlier work with hard bop and its complex chord progression and improvisation, the entire album was composed as a series of modal sketches, in which each performer was given a set of scales that defined the parameters of their improvisation and style. Davis recalled: "I didn't write out the music for Kind of Blue, but brought in sketches for what everybody was supposed to play because I wanted a lot of spontaneity." The track "So What" has only two chords: D-7 and E♭-7.
Chord changes for "So What" by Miles Davis (1959).
Other innovators in this style include Jackie McLean, and two musicians who also played on Kind of Blue – John Coltrane and Bill Evans.
By the 1950s, Afro-Cuban jazz had been using modes for at least a decade, as a lot of it borrowed from Cuban popular dance forms, which are structured around multiple ostinatos with only a few chords. A case in point is Mario Bauza's "Tanga" (1943), the first Afro-Cuban jazz piece. Machito's Afro-Cubans recorded modal tunes in the 1940s, featuring jazz soloists such as Howard McGhee, Brew Moore, Charlie Parker, and Flip Phillips. There is no evidence however, that Davis or other mainstream jazz musicians were influenced by the use of modes in Afro-Cuban jazz, or other branches of Latin jazz.
Free jazz and the related form of avant-garde jazz broke through into an open space of "free tonality" in which meter, beat, and formal symmetry all disappeared, and a range of World music from India, Africa, and Arabia were melded into an intense, even religiously ecstatic or orgiastic style of playing. While loosely inspired by bebop, free jazz tunes gave players much more latitude; the loose harmony and tempo was deemed controversial when this approach was first developed. The bassist Charles Mingus is also frequently associated with the avant-garde in jazz, although his compositions draw from myriad styles and genres.
The first major stirrings came in the 1950s, with the early work of Ornette Coleman and Cecil Taylor. In the 1960s, performers included Archie Shepp, Sun Ra, Albert Ayler, Pharaoh Sanders, John Coltrane, and others. In developing his late style, Coltrane was especially influenced by the dissonance of Ayler's trio with bassist Gary Peacock and drummer Sunny Murray, a rhythm section honed with Cecil Taylor as leader. Coltrane championed many younger free jazz musicians, (notably Archie Shepp), and under his influence Impulse! became a leading free jazz record label.
A series of recordings with the Classic Quartet in the first half of 1965 show Coltrane's playing becoming increasingly abstract, with greater incorporation of devices like multiphonics, utilization of overtones, and playing in the altissimo register, as well as a mutated return to Coltrane's sheets of sound. In the studio, he all but abandoned his soprano to concentrate on the tenor saxophone. In addition, the quartet responded to the leader by playing with increasing freedom. The group's evolution can be traced through the recordings The John Coltrane Quartet Plays, Living Space, Transition (both June 1965), New Thing at Newport (July 1965), Sun Ship (August 1965), and First Meditations (September 1965).
In June 1965, Coltrane and ten other musicians recorded Ascension, a 40-minute long piece that included adventurous solos by the young avant-garde musicians (as well as Coltrane), and was controversial primarily for the collective improvisation sections that separated the solos. After recording with the quartet over the next few months, Coltrane invited Pharoah Sanders to join the band in September 1965. While Coltrane used over-blowing frequently as an emotional exclamation-point, Sanders would opt to overblow his entire solo, resulting in a constant screaming and screeching in the altissimo range of the instrument.
Free jazz quickly found a foothold in Europe—in part because musicians such as Ayler, Taylor, Steve Lacy and Eric Dolphy spent extended periods there. A distinctive European contemporary jazz (often incorporating elements of free jazz but not limited to it) flourished also because of the emergence of musicians (such as John Surman, Zbigniew Namyslowski, Albert Mangelsdorff, Kenny Wheeler and Mike Westbrook) anxious to develop new approaches reflecting their national and regional musical cultures and contexts. Ever since the 1960s various creative centers of jazz have been developing in Europe. A good example of this is the creative jazz scene in Amsterdam. Following the work of veteran drummer Han Bennink and pianist Misha Mengelberg, musicians started to explore free music by collectively improvising until a certain form (melody, rhythm, or even famous song) is found by the band. Jazz critic Kevin Whithead documented the free jazz scene in Amsterdam and some of its main exponents such as ICP (Instant Composers Pool) orchestra in his book New Dutch Swing. Keith Jarrett has been prominent in defending free jazz from criticism by traditionalists in the 1990s and 2000s.
1960s and 1970s
Latin jazz is jazz with Latin American rhythms. Although musicians continually expand its parameters, the term Latin jazz is generally understood to have a more specific meaning than simply jazz from Latin America. A more precise term might be Afro-Latin jazz, as the jazz subgenre typically employs rhythms that either have a direct analog in Africa, or exhibit an African rhythmic influence beyond what is ordinarily heard in other jazz. The two main categories of Latin jazz are Afro-Cuban jazz and Brazilian jazz.
In the 1960s and 1970s, many jazz musicians had only a minimum understanding of Cuban and Brazilian music. Jazz compositions using Cuban or Brazilian elements were often referred to as "Latin tunes", with no distinction between a Cuban son montuno and a Brazilian bossa nova. Even as late as 2000, in Mark Gridley's Jazz Styles: History and Analysis, a bossa nova bass line is referred to as a "Latin bass figure." It was not uncommon during the 1960s and 1970s to hear a conga playing a Cuban tumbao, while the drumset and bass played a Brazilian bossa nova pattern. Many jazz standards such as "Manteca", "On Green Dolphin Street", and "Song for My Father", have a "Latin" A section, and a swung B section. Typically, the band would only play an even-eighth "Latin" feel in the A section of the head and swing throughout all of the solos. Latin jazz specialists like Cal Tjader tended to be the exception. For example, on a 1959 live Tjader recording of "A Night in Tunisia", pianist Vince Guaraldi soloed through the entire form over an authentic mambo.
Afro-Cuban jazz often uses Afro-Cuban instruments such as congas, timbales, güiro, and claves, combined with piano, double bass, etc. Afro-Cuban jazz began with Machito's Afro-Cubans in the early 1940s, but took off and entered the mainstream in the late 1940s when bebop musicians such as Dizzy Gillespie and Billy Taylor began experimenting with Cuban rhythms. Mongo Santamaria and Cal Tjader further refined the genre in the late 1950s. Although a great deal of Cuban-based Latin jazz is modal, Latin jazz is not always modal. It can be as harmonically expansive as post-bop jazz. For example, Tito Puente recorded an arrangement of "Giant Steps" done to an Afro-Cuban guaguancó. A Latin jazz piece may momentarily contract harmonically, as in the case of a percussion solo over a one or two-chord piano guajeo.
Guajeos are the typical Afro-Cuban ostinato melodies, which originated in the genre known as son. Guajeos provide a rhythmic/melodic framework that may be varied within certain parameters, while still maintaining a repetitive, and thus "danceable", structure. Most guajeos are rhythmically based on clave. Guajeos or guajeo fragments are commonly used motifs in Latin jazz compositions.
Guajeos are one of the most important elements of the vocabulary of Afro-Cuban descarga (jazz-inspired instrumental jams), providing a means of tension/resolution, and a sense of forward momentum, within a relatively simple harmonic structure. The use of multiple, contrapuntal guajeos in Latin jazz facilitates simultaneous collective improvisation, based on theme variation. In a way, this polyphonic texture is reminiscent of the original New Orleans style of jazz.
Afro-Cuban jazz renaissance
Afro-Cuban jazz has been for most of its history a matter of superimposing jazz phrasing over Cuban rhythms. However, by the end of the 1970s, a new generation of New York City musicians emerged who were fluent in both salsa dance music and jazz. The time had come for a new level of integration of jazz and Cuban rhythms. This era of creativity and vitality is best represented by the Gonzalez brothers Jerry (congas and trumpet) and Andy (bass). During 1974-1976 they were members of one of Eddie Palmieri's most experimental salsa groups. Salsa was the medium, but Palmieri was stretching the form in new ways. He incorporated parallel fourths, with McCoy Tyner-type vamps. The innovations of Palmieri, the Gonzalez brothers and others, led to an Afro-Cuban jazz renaissance in New York City.
This occurred in parallel with developments in Cuba The first Cuban band of this new wave was Irakere. Their "Chékere-son" (1976) introduced a style of "Cubanized" bebop-flavored horn lines that departed from the more angular guajeo-based lines typical of Cuban popular music and Latin jazz up until that time. It was based on Charlie Parker's composition "Billie's Bounce", jumbled together in a way that fused clave and bebop horn lines. In spite of the ambivalence of some band members towards Irakere's Afro-Cuban folkloric/jazz fusion, their experiments forever changed Cuban jazz: their innovations are heard in the high level of harmonic and rhythmic complexity in Cuban jazz, and in the jazzy and complex contemporary form of popular dance music known as timba.
Naná Vasconcelos playing the Afro-Brazilian Berimbau
Brazilian jazz such as bossa nova is derived from samba, with influences from jazz and other 20th-century classical and popular music styles. Bossa is generally moderately paced, with melodies sung in Portuguese or English. The style was pioneered by Brazilians João Gilberto and Antônio Carlos Jobim. The related term jazz-samba describes an adaptation of street samba into jazz. Bossa nova was made popular by Elizete Cardoso's recording of "Chega de Saudade" on the Canção do Amor Demais LP. The initial releases by Gilberto and the 1959 film Black Orpheus achieved significant popularity in Latin America, and this spread to North America via visiting American jazz musicians. The resulting recordings by Charlie Byrd and Stan Getz cemented bossa nova's popularity and led to a worldwide boom with 1963's Getz/Gilberto, numerous recordings by famous jazz performers such as Ella Fitzgerald and Frank Sinatra, and the entrenchment of the bossa nova style as a lasting influence in world music.
Brazilian percussionists such as Airto Moreira and Naná Vasconcelos also influenced jazz internationally by introducing Afro-Brazilian folkloric instruments and rhythms into a wide variety of jazz styles and attracting a greater audience to them.
Post-bop jazz is a form of small-combo jazz derived from earlier bop styles. The genre's origins lie in seminal work by John Coltrane, Miles Davis, Bill Evans, Charles Mingus, Wayne Shorter and Herbie Hancock. Generally, the term post-bop is taken to mean jazz from the mid-sixties onward that assimilates influence from hard bop, modal jazz, the avant-garde, and free jazz, without necessarily being immediately identifiable as any of the above.
Much post-bop was recorded on Blue Note Records. Key albums include Speak No Evil by Shorter; The Real McCoy by McCoy Tyner; Maiden Voyage by Hancock; Miles Smiles by Davis; and Search for the New Land by Lee Morgan (an artist not typically associated with the post-bop genre). Most post-bop artists worked in other genres as well, with a particularly strong overlap with later hard bop.
Soul jazz was a development of hard bop which incorporated strong influences from blues, gospel and rhythm and blues in music for small groups, often the organ trio, which partnered a Hammond organ player with a drummer and a tenor saxophonist. Unlike hard bop, soul jazz generally emphasized repetitive grooves and melodic hooks, and improvisations were often less complex than in other jazz styles. Horace Silver had a large influence on the soul jazz style, with songs that used funky and often gospel-based piano vamps. It often had a steadier "funk" style groove, different from the swing rhythms typical of much hard bop. Important soul jazz organists included Jimmy McGriff and Jimmy Smith and Johnny Hammond Smith, and influential tenor saxophone players included Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis and Stanley Turrentine.
There was a resurgence of interest in jazz and other forms of African-American cultural expression during the Black Arts Movement and Black nationalist period of the 1960s and 1970s. African themes became popular. There were many new jazz compositions with African-related titles: "Black Nile" (Wayne Shorter), "Blue Nile" (Alice Coltrane), "Obirin African" (Art Blakey), "Zambia" (Lee Morgan), "Appointment in Ghana" (Jackie McLean), "Marabi" (Cannonball Adderley), "Yoruba" (Hubert Laws), and many more. Pianist Randy Weston's music incorporated African elements, for example, the large-scale suite "Uhuru Africa" (with the participation of poet Langston Hughes) and "Highlife: Music From the New African Nations." Both Weston and saxophonist Stanley Turrentine covered the Nigerian Bobby Benson's piece "Niger Mambo", which features Afro-Caribbean and jazz elements within a West African Highlife style. Some musicians, including Pharaoh Sanders, Hubert Laws and Wayne Shorter, began using African instruments such as kalimbas, bells, beaded gourds and other instruments not traditional to jazz.
During this period, there was an increased use of the typical African 12/8 cross-rhythmic structure in jazz. Herbie Hancock's "Succotash" on Inventions and Dimensions (1963) is an open-ended modal, 12/8 improvised jam. Hancock's pattern of attack-points, rather than the pattern of pitches, is the primary focus of his improvisations, accompanied by Paul Chambers on bass, and percussionist Osvaldo Martinez playing a traditional Afro-Cuban chekeré part, and Willie Bobo playing an Abakuá bell pattern on a snare drum with brushes.
Abakuá bell pattern
played on a snare with brushes by Willie Bobo on Herbie Hancock's "Succotash" (1963).
The first jazz standard composed by a non-Latino to use an overt African 12/8 cross-rhythm was Wayne Shorter's "Footprints" (1967). On the version recorded on Miles Smiles by Miles Davis, the bass switches to a 4/4 tresillo figure at 2:20. "Footprints" is not, however, a Latin jazz tune: African rhythmic structures are accessed directly by Ron Carter (bass) and Tony Williams (drums) via the rhythmic sensibilities of swing. Throughout the piece, the four beats, whether sounded or not, are maintained as the temporal referent. In the example below, the main beats are indicated by slashed noteheads, which do not indicate bass notes.
Ron Carter's two main bass lines for "Footprints" by Wayner Shorter (1967). The main beats are indicated by slashed noteheads.
The use of pentatonic scales was another African-associated trend. The use of pentatonic scales in Africa probably goes back thousands of years. McCoy Tyner perfected the use of the pentatonic scale in his solos. Tyner also used parallel fifths and fourths, which are common harmonies in West Africa.
The minor pentatonic scale is often used in blues improvisation. Like a blues scale, a minor pentatonic scale can be played over all of the chords in a blues. The following pentatonic lick was played over blues changes by Joe Henderson on Horace Silver's "African Queen" (1965).
C minor pentatonic phrase played by Joe Henderson on "African Queen" by Horace Silver (1965).
Jazz pianist, theorist, and educator Mark Levine refers the scale generated by beginning on the fifth step of a pentatonic scale, as the V pentatonic scale.
C pentatonic scale beginning on the I (C pentatonic), IV (F pentatonic), and V (G pentatonic) steps of the scale.
Levine points out that the V pentatonic scale works for all three chords of the standard II-V-I jazz progression. This is a very common progression, used in pieces such as Miles Davis' "Tune Up." The following example shows the V pentatonic scale over a II-V-I progression.
V pentatonic scale over II-V-I chord progression.
Accordingly, John Coltrane's "Giant Steps" (1960), with its 26 chords per 16 bars, can be played using only three pentatonic scales. Coltrane studied Nicolas Slonimsky's Thesaurus of Scales and Melodic Patterns, which contains material that is virtually identical to portions of "Giant Steps". The harmonic complexity of "Giant Steps" is on the level of the most advanced 20th-century art music. Superimposing the pentatonic scale over "Giant Steps" is not merely a matter of harmonic simplification, but also a sort of "Africanizing" of the piece, which provides an alternate approach for soloing. Mark Levine observes that when mixed in with more conventional "playing the changes", pentatonic scales provide "structure and a feeling of increased space."
In the late 1960s and early 1970s the hybrid form of jazz-rock fusion was developed by combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments and the highly amplified stage sound of rock musicians such as Jimi Hendrix and Frank Zappa. Jazz fusion music often uses mixed meters, odd time signatures, syncopation, complex chords and harmonies. All Music Guide states that "until around 1967, the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly completely separate. [However, ...] as rock became more creative and its musicianship improved, and as some in the jazz world became bored with hard bop and did not want to play strictly avant-garde music, the two different idioms began to trade ideas and occasionally combine forces."
Miles Davis' new directions
In 1969 Davis fully embraced the electric instrument approach to jazz with In a Silent Way, which can be considered his first fusion album. Composed of two side-long suites edited heavily by producer Teo Macero, this quiet, static album would be equally influential upon the development of ambient music. As Davis recalls: "The music I was really listening to in 1968 was James Brown, the great guitar player Jimi Hendrix, and a new group who had just come out with a hit record, "Dance to the Music", Sly and the Family Stone... I wanted to make it more like rock. When we recorded In a Silent Way I just threw out all the chord sheets and told everyone to play off of that." Two contributors to In a Silent Way also joined organist Larry Young to create one of the early acclaimed fusion albums: Emergency! by The Tony Williams Lifetime.
Davis's Bitches Brew (1970) was his most successful of this era. Although inspired by rock and funk, Davis's fusion creations were original, and brought about a type of new avant-garde, electronic, psychedelic-jazz, as far from pop music as any other Davis work.
Davis alumnus, pianist Herbie Hancock, released four albums of the short-lived (1970–1973) psychedelic-jazz subgenre: Mwandishi (1972), Crossings (1973), and Sextant (1973). The rhythmic background was a mix of rock, funk, and African-type textures.
Musicians who worked with Davis formed the four most influential fusion groups: Weather Report and Mahavishnu Orchestra emerged in 1971 and were soon followed by Return to Forever and The Headhunters.
Weather Report's debut album was in the electronic, psychedelic-jazz vein. The self-titled Weather Report (1971) caused a sensation in the jazz world on its arrival, thanks to the pedigree of the group's members (including percussionist Airto Moreira), and their unorthodox approach to their music. The album featured a softer sound than would be the case in later years (predominantly using acoustic bass, with Shorter exclusively playing soprano saxophone, and with no synthesizers involved) but is still considered a classic of early fusion. It built on the avant-garde experiments which Zawinul and Shorter had pioneered with Miles Davis on Bitches Brew (including an avoidance of head-and-chorus composition in favour of continuous rhythm and movement) but taking the music further. To emphasise the group's rejection of standard methodology, the album opened with the inscrutable avant-garde atmospheric piece "Milky Way" (created by Shorter's extremely muted saxophone inducing vibrations in Zawinul's piano strings while the latter pedalled the instrument). Down Beat described the album as "music beyond category" and awarded it Album of the Year in the magazine's polls that year. Weather Report's subsequent releases were creative funk-jazz works.
Although some jazz purists protested the blend of jazz and rock, many jazz innovators crossed over from the contemporary hard bop scene into fusion. In addition to using the electric instruments of rock, such as the electric guitar, electric bass, electric piano and synthesizer keyboards, fusion also used the powerful amplification, "fuzz" pedals, wah-wah pedals, and other effects used by 1970s-era rock bands. Notable performers of jazz fusion included Miles Davis, Eddie Harris, keyboardists Joe Zawinul, Chick Corea, Herbie Hancock, vibraphonist Gary Burton, drummer Tony Williams, violinist Jean-Luc Ponty, guitarists Larry Coryell, Al Di Meola, John McLaughlin and Frank Zappa, saxophonist Wayne Shorter and bassists Jaco Pastorius and Stanley Clarke. Jazz fusion was also popular in Japan where the band Casiopea released over thirty fusion albums.
In the 21st century, almost all jazz has influences from other nations and styles of music, making jazz fusion as much a common practice as style.
Developed by the mid-1970s, jazz-funk is characterized by a strong back beat (groove), electrified sounds, and often, the presence of electronic analog synthesizers. Jazz-funk also draws influences from traditional African music, Afro-Cuban rhythms and Jamaican reggae, notably Kingston bandleader Sonny Bradshaw. Another feature is the shift of proportions between composition and improvisation: arrangements, melody and overall writing were heavily emphasized. The integration of funk, soul and R&B music into jazz resulted in the creation of a genre whose spectrum is wide and ranges from strong jazz improvisation to soul, funk or disco with jazz arrangements, jazz riffs and jazz solos, and sometimes soul vocals.
Early examples are Herbie Hancock's Headhunters band and the Miles Davis album On the Corner. The latter, from 1972, began Davis' foray into jazz-funk and was, he claimed, an attempt at reconnecting with the young black audience which had largely forsaken jazz for rock and funk. While there is a discernible rock and funk influence in the timbres of the instruments employed, other tonal and rhythmic textures, such as the Indian tambora and tablas, and Cuban congas and bongos, create a multi-layered soundscape. The album was a culmination of sorts of the musique concrète approach that Davis and producer Teo Macero had begun to explore in the late 1960s.
Musicians began improvising jazz tunes on unusual instruments, such as the jazz harp (Alice Coltrane), electrically amplified and wah-wah pedaled jazz violin (Jean-Luc Ponty), and bagpipes (Rufus Harley). Jazz continued to expand and change, influenced by other types of music, such as world music, avant garde classical music, and rock and pop music. Guitarist John McLaughlin's Mahavishnu Orchestra played a mix of rock and jazz infused with East Indian influences. The ECM record label began in Germany in the 1970s with artists including Keith Jarrett, Paul Bley, the Pat Metheny Group, Jan Garbarek, Ralph Towner, Kenny Wheeler, John Taylor, John Surman and Eberhard Weber, establishing a new chamber music aesthetic, featuring mainly acoustic instruments, and sometimes incorporating elements of world music and folk.
In 1987, the US House of Representatives and Senate passed a bill proposed by Democratic Representative John Conyers, Jr. to define jazz as a unique form of American music stating, among other things, "... that jazz is hereby designated as a rare and valuable national American treasure to which we should devote our attention, support and resources to make certain it is preserved, understood and promulgated." It passed in the House of Representatives on September 23, 1987 and in the Senate on November 4, 1987.
Resurgence of traditionalism
The 1980s saw something of a reaction against the Fusion and Free Jazz that had dominated the 1970s. One musician who emerged early in the decade was trumpeter Wynton Marsalis, who strove to create music within what he believed was the tradition, rejecting both fusion and free jazz and creating extensions of the small and large forms initially pioneered by such artists as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington as well as the hard bop of the 1950s. Whether Marsalis' critical and commercial success was a cause or a symptom of the reaction against Fusion and Free Jazz and the resurgence of interest in the kind of jazz pioneered in the 1960s (particularly Modal Jazz and Post-Bop) is debatable; nonetheless there were many other manifestations of a resurgence of traditionalism, even if Fusion and Free Jazz were by no means abandoned and continued to develop and evolve.
For example, several musicians who had been prominent in the fusion genre during the 1970s began to record acoustic jazz once more, including Chick Corea and Herbie Hancock. Other musicians who had experimented with electronic instruments in the previous decade had abandoned their use by the 1980s, such Bill Evans, Joe Henderson and Stan Getz. Even the 1980s music of Miles Davis, although still certainly fusion, adopted a far more accessible and recognisably jazz-oriented approach than his abstract work of the mid-1970s had done, such as a return to a theme-and-solos approach.
A similar reaction took place against free jazz: according to Ted Giola,
the very leaders of the avant garde started to signal a retreat from the core principles of Free Jazz. Anthony Braxton began recording standards over familiar chord changes. Cecil Taylor played duets in concert with Mary Lou Williams, and let her set out structured harmonies and familiar jazz vocabulary under his blistering keyboard attack. And the next generation of progressive players would be even more accommodating, moving inside and outside the changes without thinking twice. Musicians such as David Murray or Don Pullen may have felt the call of free-form jazz, but they never forgot all the other ways one could play African-American music for fun and profit.
Pianist Keith Jarrett, whose bands of the 1970s had played only original compositions with prominent free jazz elements, established his so-called 'Standards Trio' in 1983 which, although also occasionally exploring collective improvisation, has primarily performed and recorded jazz standards. Chick Corea similarly began exploring jazz standards in the 1980s having neglected them for the 1970s.
David Sanborn, 2008
In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called "pop fusion" or "smooth jazz" became successful and garnered significant radio airplay in "quiet storm" time slots at radio stations in urban markets across the U.S. This helped to establish or bolster the careers of vocalists including Al Jarreau, Anita Baker, Chaka Khan and Sade, as well as saxophonists including Grover Washington, Jr., Kenny G, Kirk Whalum, Boney James and David Sanborn. In general, smooth jazz is downtempo (the most widely played tracks are of 90–105 beats per minute), and has a lead, melody-playing instrument; saxophones—especially soprano and tenor—and legato electric guitar are popular.
In his Newsweek article "The Problem With Jazz Criticism" Stanley Crouch considers Miles Davis' playing of fusion as a turning point that led to smooth jazz. Critic Aaron J. West has countered the often negative perceptions of smooth jazz, stating:
I challenge the prevalent marginalization and malignment of smooth jazz in the standard jazz narrative. Furthermore, I question the assumption that smooth jazz is an unfortunate and unwelcomed evolutionary outcome of the jazz-fusion era. Instead, I argue that smooth jazz is a long-lived musical style that merits multi-disciplinary analyses of its origins, critical dialogues, performance practice, and reception.
Acid jazz, nu jazz and jazz rap
Acid jazz developed in the UK in the 1980s and 1990s, influenced by jazz-funk and electronic dance music. Jazz-funk musicians such as Roy Ayers and Donald Byrd are often credited as forerunners of acid jazz. While acid jazz often contains various types of electronic composition (sometimes including sampling or live DJ cutting and scratching), it is just as likely to be played live by musicians, who often showcase jazz interpretation as part of their performance.
Nu jazz is influenced by jazz harmony and melodies; there are usually no improvisational aspects. It ranges from combining live instrumentation with beats of jazz house, exemplified by St Germain, Jazzanova and Fila Brazillia, to more band-based improvised jazz with electronic elements, such as that of The Cinematic Orchestra, Kobol, and the Norwegian "future jazz" style pioneered by Bugge Wesseltoft, Jaga Jazzist, Nils Petter Molvær, and others. Nu jazz can be very experimental in nature and can vary widely in sound and concept.
Jazz rap developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and incorporates jazz influence into hip hop. In 1988, Gang Starr released the debut single "Words I Manifest", sampling Dizzy Gillespie's 1962 "Night in Tunisia", and Stetsasonic released "Talkin' All That Jazz", sampling Lonnie Liston Smith. Gang Starr's debut LP, No More Mr. Nice Guy (1989), and their track "Jazz Thing" (1990), sampled Charlie Parker and Ramsey Lewis. Groups making up the Native Tongues Posse tended towards jazzy releases; these include the Jungle Brothers' debut Straight Out the Jungle (1988), and A Tribe Called Quest's People's Instinctive Travels and the Paths of Rhythm (1990) and The Low End Theory (1991).
Rap duo Pete Rock & CL Smooth incorporated jazz influences on their 1992 debut Mecca and the Soul Brother. Beginning in 1993, rapper Guru's Jazzmatazz series used jazz musicians during the studio recordings. Though jazz rap had achieved little mainstream success, Miles Davis' final album, Doo-Bop (released posthumously in 1992), was based around hip hop beats and collaborations with producer Easy Mo Bee. Davis' ex-bandmate Herbie Hancock returned to hip-hop influences in the mid-1990s, releasing the album Dis Is Da Drum in 1994.
Punk jazz and jazzcore
The relaxation of orthodoxy concurrent with post-punk in London and New York City led to a new appreciation for jazz. In London, the Pop Group began to mix free jazz, along with dub reggae, into their brand of punk rock. In NYC, No Wave took direct inspiration from both free jazz and punk. Examples of this style include Lydia Lunch's Queen of Siam, the work of James Chance and the Contortions, who mixed Soul with free jazz and punk, Gray, and the Lounge Lizards, who were the first group to call themselves "punk jazz."
John Zorn began to make note of the emphasis on speed and dissonance that was becoming prevalent in punk rock and incorporated this into free jazz. This began in 1986 with the album Spy vs. Spy, a collection of Ornette Coleman tunes done in the contemporary thrashcore style. The same year, Sonny Sharrock, Peter Brötzmann, Bill Laswell, and Ronald Shannon Jackson recorded the first album under the name Last Exit, a similarly aggressive blend of thrash and free jazz. These developments are the origins of jazzcore, the fusion of free jazz with hardcore punk.
Steve Coleman in Paris, July 2004
The M-Base movement was started in the 1980s by a loose collective of young African-American musicians in New York that included Steve Coleman, Greg Osby, and Gary Thomas developed complex but grooving music. In the 1990s most M-Base participants turned to more conventional music, but Coleman, the most active participant, continued developing his music in accordance with the M-Base concept.
Coleman's audience decreased but his music and concepts influenced many musicians—both in terms of music technique and of the music's meaning. Hence, M-Base changed from a movement of a loose collective of young musicians to a kind of informal Coleman "school", with a much advanced but already originally implied concept.
Jazz since the 1990s has been characterised by a pluralism in which no one style dominates but rather a wide range of active styles and genres are popular. Individual performers often play in a variety of styles, sometimes in the same performance. Pianist Brad Mehldau and power trio The Bad Plus have explored contemporary rock music within the context of the traditional jazz acoustic piano trio, for example recording instrumental jazz versions of songs by rock musicians. The Bad Plus have also incorporated elements of free jazz into their music. A firm avant-garde or free jazz stance has been maintained by some players, such as saxophonists Greg Osby and Charles Gayle, while others, such as James Carter, have incorporated free jazz elements into a more traditional framework.
On the other side even singers like Harry Connick, Jr. who has seven top-20 US albums, including ten number-1 US so-called jazz albums, earning more number-one albums than any other artist in the US jazz chart history, is sometimes called a jazz musician although there are just some elements from jazz history in his mainly pop orientated music. Also other new vocalists, such as Diana Krall, Norah Jones, Cassandra Wilson, Kurt Elling, and Jamie Cullum, have achieved popularity with a mix of traditional jazz and pop/rock forms.
Players emerging since the 1990s and usually performing in largely straight-ahead settings include pianists Jason Moran and Vijay Iyer, guitarist Kurt Rosenwinkel, vibraphonist Stefon Harris, trumpeters Roy Hargrove and Terence Blanchard, saxophonists Chris Potter and Joshua Redman, clarinetist Ken Peplowski, and bassist Christian McBride.
Although jazz-rock fusion reached the height of its popularity in the 1970s, the use of electronic instruments and rock-derived musical elements in jazz continued in the 1990s and 2000s. Musicians using this approach have included Pat Metheny, John Abercrombie, John Scofield, and Swedish group e.s.t.
Steve Coleman's music and M-Base concept gained recognition as "next logical step" after Charlie Parker, John Coltrane, and Ornette Coleman.
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- ^ Illustrated well in HBO's program, Treme, which has succeeded in researching the jazz culture of New Orleans.
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- ^ "... circular and highly complex polymetric patterns which preserve their danceable character of popular Funk-rhythms despite their internal complexity and asymmetries ..." (Musicologist and musician Ekkehard Jost, Sozialgeschichte des Jazz, 2003, p. 377)
- ^  Steve Coleman
- ^ Pianist Vijay Iyer (who was chosen as "Jazz musician of the year 2010" by the Jazz Journalists Association) said: "It's hard to overstate Steve (Coleman's) influence. He's affected more than one generation, as much as anyone since John Coltrane." ()
- ^ "His recombinant ideas about rhythm and form and his eagerness to mentor musicians and build a new vernacular have had a profound effect on American jazz." (Ben Ratliff, )
- ^ Vijay Iyer: "It's not just that you can connect the dots by playing seven or 11 beats. What sits behind his influence is this global perspective on music and life. He has a point of view of what he does and why he does it." ()
- ^ Michael J. West (June 2, 2010). "Jazz Articles: Steve Coleman: Vital Information". Jazztimes.com. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- ^ "What Is M-Base?". M-base.com. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- ^ Chart Beat, Billboard, April 9, 2009
- ^ In 2014 drummer Billy Hart said that "Coleman has quietly influenced the whole jazz musical world," and is the "next logical step" after Charlie Parker, John Coltrane, and Ornette Coleman. (Source: Kristin E. Holmes, Genius grant saxman Steve Coleman redefining jazz, October 09, 2014, web portal Philly.com, Philadelphia Media Network) Already in 2010 pianist Vijay Iyer (who was chosen as "Jazz Musician of the Year 2010" by the Jazz Journalists Association) said: "To me, Steve [Coleman] is as important as [John] Coltrane. He has contributed an equal amount to the history of the music. He deserves to be placed in the pantheon of pioneering artists." (Source: Larry Blumenfeld, A Saxophonist's Reverberant Sound, June 11, 2010, The Wall Street Journal) In September 2014, Coleman was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship (a.k.a. "Genius Grant") for "redefining the vocabulary and vernaculars of contemporary music." (Source: Kristin E. Holmes, Genius grant saxman Steve Coleman redefining jazz, October 09, 2014, web portal Philly.com, Philadelphia Media Network)
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- Dance, Stanley (1983). The World of Earl Hines. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80182-5 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK]. Includes a 120-page interview with Hines plus many photos.
- Davis, Miles. Miles Davis (2005). Boplicity. Delta Music plc. UPC 4-006408-264637.
- Downbeat (2009). The Great Jazz Interviews: Frank Alkyer & Ed Enright (eds). Hal Leonard Books. ISBN 978-1-4234-6384-9 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK]
- Elsdon, Peter. 2003. "The Cambridge Companion to Jazz, Edited by Mervyn Cooke and David Horn, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Review." Frankfürter Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft 6:159–75.
- Gang Starr. 2006. Mass Appeal: The Best of Gang Starr. CD recording 72435-96708-2-9. New York: Virgin Records.
- Giddins, Gary. 1998. Visions of Jazz: The First Century. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507675-3 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK]
- Godbolt, Jim. 2005. A History of Jazz in Britain 1919–50. London: Northway. ISBN 0-9537040-5-X [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK]
- Gridley, Mark C. 2004. Concise Guide to Jazz, fourth edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-182657-3 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK]
- Hersch, Charles (2009). Subversive Sounds: Race and the Birth of Jazz in New Orleans. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-32868-3 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Kenney, William Howland. 1993. Chicago Jazz: A Cultural History, 1904–1930. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506453-4 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK] (cloth); paperback reprint 1994 ISBN 0-19-509260-0 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK]
- Oliver, Paul (1970). Savannah Syncopators: African Retentions in the Blues. London: Studio Vista. ISBN 0-289-79827-2 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK]..
- Mandel, Howard. 2007. Miles, Ornette, Cecil: Jazz Beyond Jazz. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96714-7 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Nairn, Charlie. 1975. Earl 'Fatha' HInes: 1 hour 'solo' documentary made in "Blues Alley" Jazz Club, Washington DC, for ATV, England, 1975: produced/directed by Charlie Nairn: original 16mm film plus out-takes of additional tunes from that film archived in British Film Institute Library at bfi.org.uk and http://www.itvstudios.com: DVD copies with Jean Gray Hargrove Music Library [who hold The Earl Hines Collection/Archive], University of California, Berkeley: also University of Chicago, Hogan Jazz Archive Tulane University New Orleans and Louis Armstrong House Museum Libraries.
- Peñalosa, David. 2010. The Clave Matrix; Afro-Cuban Rhythm: Its Principles and African Origins. Redway, CA: Bembe Inc. ISBN 1-886502-80-3 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Porter, Eric. 2002. What Is This Thing Called Jazz? African American Musicians as Artists, Critics and Activists. London, England: University of California Press.
- Ratliffe, Ben. 2002. Jazz: A Critic's Guide to the 100 Most Important Recordings. The New York Times Essential Library. New York: Times Books. ISBN 0-8050-7068-0 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK]
- Schuller, Gunther. 1968. Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development. Oxford University Press. New printing 1986.
- Schuller, Gunther. 1991. The Swing Era: The Development of Jazz, 1930–1945. Oxford University Press.
- Searle, Chris. 2008. Forward Groove: Jazz and the Real World from Louis Armstrong to Gilad Atzmon. London: Northway. ISBN 978-0-9550908-7-5 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK]
- Szwed, John Francis. 2000. Jazz 101: A Complete Guide to Learning and Loving Jazz. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 0-7868-8496-7 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK]
- Vacher, Peter. 2004. Soloists and Sidemen: American Jazz Stories. London: Northway. ISBN 978-0-9537040-4-0 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK]
- Yanow, Scott. 2004. Jazz on Film: The Complete Story of the Musicians and Music Onscreen. Backbeat Books. ISBN 0-87930-783-8 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK]
- Jazz Foundation of America
- Jazz at the Smithsonian Museum
- Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame website
- Jazz Artist and Discography Resource
- Red Hot Jazz.com
- Jazz at Lincoln Center website
- American Jazz Museum website
- The International Archives for the Jazz Organ
- Classic and Contemporary Jazz Music
- The Jazz Archive at Duke University
- Jazz Festivals in Europe
- Free 1920s Jazz Collection available for downloading at Archive.org
- DownBeat's Jazz 101 A Guide to the Music This section of the Downbeat magazine website has several short pages to allow the beginning student of jazz to acquire an education.
- Nairn, Charlie, (1975): Earl "Fatha" Hines. 1hr documentary filmed at Blues Alley jazz club, Washington DC. Produced and directed by Charlie Nairn for UK ATV Television, 1975. Original 16mm film, plus out-takes of additional tunes, archived in British Film Institute Library at bfi.org.uk; also at http://www.itvstudios.com; DVD copies with the "Jean Gray Hargrove Music Library" (which holds The Earl Hines Collection/Archive), University of California, Berkeley, California; also at University of Chicago "Hogan Jazz Archive", Tulane University New Orleans and at the Louis Armstrong House Museum Libraries: see also www.jazzonfilm.com/documentaries.
- Jazz collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Jazz collected news and commentary at The Guardian
- Jazz at DMOZ