Cyperquat; 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium; N-Methyl-4-phenylpyridine
|Molar mass||170.25 g/mol|
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
|(what is: /?)|
MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) is a positively charged molecule with chemical formula C12H12N+. It is toxic and acts by interfering with oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria by inhibiting complex I, leading to the depletion of ATP and cell death. It also inhibits the synthesis of catecholamines, reduces levels of dopamine and cardiac norepinephrine, and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase.
The neurotoxin MPTP is converted in the brain into MPP+ by the enzyme MAO-B, causing parkinsonism in primates by killing certain dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra. MPP+-induced neurodegeneration is specific to dopamine neurons and can be prevented by drug treatment or by limiting the function of the dopamine transporter.