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|Founded||April 17, 1969|
|Hubs||Soekarno Hatta International Airport
Sultan Syarif Kasim II Airport
Juanda International Airport
|Destinations||10 (7 domestic, 3 international)|
|Parent company||Saratoga Investama Sedaya|
Wisma Soewarna Unit 1C-1G
Paul Rombeek (President Director)
Andry Irwan (Finance Director)
Mandala Airlines is a low-cost airline headquartered in Jakarta, Indonesia and is an associate company of the Singapore-based Tiger Airways Group. The former full service airline repositioned itself as a budget airline following a year-long grounding in 2011 caused by debt woes. Mandala resumed operations in April 2012 following an injection of fresh capital by Indonesian conglomerate Saratoga Investment Corp which took over 51% of the airline, with partner Tiger Airways taking up 33.3% and the rest by creditors.
As a partner airline of Tiger Airways, Mandala shares Tiger's sales, distribution and marketing channels to tap into Tiger's wider network across Southeast Asia, Australia, China and India. More recently, the airline has also offered single joint itineraries in collaboration with long-haul low-cost carrier Scoot through its hub at Singapore Changi Airport. Mandala's fleet of Airbus A320 aircraft fly primarily within the more populous regions of Java and Sumatra, providing domestic and regional international connections of no more than five hours. It plans to increase its fleet to 15 aircraft by end 2012  and to 25 by 2015.
PT Mandala Airlines was founded on April 17, 1969. The founders were Col. Sofjar, Maj. Gen. Raden Soerjo, Adil Aljol, Maj. (Air Force) Soegandi Partosoegondo, Kasbi Indradjanoe and Darwin Ramli. The airline was owned by PT Dharma Kencana Sakti, which in turn was the commercial arm of Yayasan Dharma Putra Kostrad, a foundation linked to Kostrad, the strategic reserve command of the Indonesian army. The airline was named after Operation Mandala, the military operations to incorporate West Papua into Indonesia. The name also refers to mandala, a Sanskrit term for a diagram symbolizing the universe, which is used as the logo of the corporation.
In its early years Mandala Airlines operated flights between Jakarta and destinations in eastern Indonesia, such as Ambon, Gorontalo, Kendari, Makassar and Manado. In 1972 Mandala took over Seulawah Air Service (another military-owned airline), which flew to cities in western Indonesia, such as Banda Aceh, Banjarmasin, Medan, Padang, Palembang, Pekanbaru and Pontianak, giving the airline a national coverage.
Under military management, Mandala Airlines kept a relatively quiet existence as a second-tier airline. In 1992, it retired the last of its aged turboprop fleet and replaced them with leased second hand jet aircraft. In 2001, it suffered a financial scandal, in which no less than IDR 135.5 billion (about USD 13.5 million) was stolen from the company funds by a senior Kostrad officer.
Despite being awarded as Indonesia's "Most Potential Brand in Airlines Service" in 2002, Mandala found it hard to compete with other recently-emerged Indonesian airlines. In 2005, Mandala experienced a high profile accident in Medan. At about the same time, political developments in Indonesia forced the military to divest itself of its businesses, resulting in Mandala Airlines being offered for sale. After the Indonesian government refused to take over Mandala Airlines, Cardig International acquired the airline for IDR 300 billion (USD 34 million) in April 2006. Indigo Partners acquired 49% of Cardig's shares in October 2006.
Within one year of its acquisition, Mandala Airlines transformed its image into a modern airline satisfying international standards of safety. It adopted the low-cost carrier model, in order to compete with other low-cost airlines in Indonesia. Mandala Airlines created a special niche among Indonesia's low-cost carriers by creating an image as a safe airline, taking advantage of the relatively young age of its fleet.
Mandala has now completed the IOSA (IATA Operational Safety Audit) of the International Air Transport Association (IATA), and other manufacturer audits. It contracted maintenance of its aircraft to Singapore Airlines Engineering Company (SIAEC). Its safety improvements were recognized by the European Union as Mandala was among four Indonesian airlines (the others were Garuda Indonesia, Airfast Indonesia and Premiair) officially struck from the EU airline ban list on July 14, 2009. Mandala is listed in Category 1 by the Indonesian Civil Aviation Authority for airline safety quality.
In January 2009, Mandala Airlines completed the phasing out of its older Boeing aircraft, replacing them with newer Airbuses. On April 20, 2009, Mandala moved its Jakarta operations to the new Terminal 3 of the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport. In April 2010, Mandala Airlines announced international services to Hong Kong, Macau and Singapore. These services started on June 25, 2010.
Shortly after services between Jakarta and Macau started on 21 July 2010, the airline announced that all flights between 22 to 29 August 2010 had been cancelled. Concerns were raised by some passengers that the company did not provide adequate information about the abrupt cancellations.
On January 13, 2011, Mandala Airlines temporarily stopped flying all of their fleet due to debt problems. In May 2011, Singapore-based Tiger Airways thru Road Aviation Pte. Ltd. and Saratoga Investama, an Indonesian strategic investment company owned by Sandiaga Uno, announced their plans in a filing to the Singapore Stock Exchange on Thursday. Tiger Airways will acquire a 33 percent stake, while the Saratoga Group will buy 51 percent of Mandala. Mandala Airlines will focus on Low Cost Carrier (LCC) market because one of the shareholders, Tiger Airways also run an LCC operation.
The company was reported to have asked the commercial court to delay debt recovery action against the airline. The official application for postponement of debt payments to the Commercial Court has been filed for Rp.800 billion to about 271 creditors. At end of February 2011, the creditors had finally accepted the airline's debt settlement proposal to convert debt to equity. It was approved by 70.58 percent of total creditors from the total debt of Rp.2.4 trillion. After struggle with the funds, on September 24, 2011 the acquisition transaction was finally closed. Mandala would be back in the air 90 days after it, but certainly should got a new Air Operator Certificate first during it. Two Mandala aircraft have been checked by the Transportation Ministry inspectors and Mandala Airlines have to resume service by February 15, 2012 or its AOC license would be revoked. Mandala will have 10 aircraft within one year.
Mandala resumed operations on Thursday 5 April 2012, with one domestic route between its home base Jakarta and Medan, the capital of North Sumatra. This will be followed by its first international destination when it launches the Medan-Singapore route on 20 April 2012, adding a second Indonesian destination to Tiger's Singapore network after Jakarta. From May, Mandala will also fly twice daily to Malaysia's capital Kuala Lumpur from Jakarta. Passengers holding on to Mandala tickets for flights after the company ceased operations in 2011 were offered a complimentary travel voucher redeemable through the company's new Tiger-based website.
The airline's logo is a golden eight-pointed mandala reflecting the eight characters of humanity and the eight elements in Javanese tradition, with a five-petaled lotus in its centre reflecting Indonesia's five-principled state ideology, Pancasila. A new logo was unveiled on September 1, 2008, emphasizing the new image of the corporation. The new logo, designed by Veronica Halim & Eddy Purwanto of Nuage Branding, keeps the mandala and lotus theme of the original, but has a more streamlined design.
The current livery of Mandala Airlines is a "Eurowhite" scheme, consisting of a white fuselage with a blue 'mandala' title. The company logo is applied on the tail and the outboard sides of engine nacelles. Mandala's previous livery was also a "eurowhite" scheme with a different typeface for the 'Mandala' title, a blue tail and the original logo. The airline's earliest scheme was a bare-metal lower and white upper fuselage with a blue cheatline across the cabin windows and a red 'MANDALA' title.
Other recent liveries used by Mandala Airlines include a gold and blue wavy scheme with a large billboard 'Mandala' title introduced in early 2008, a mainly-white scheme with gold and blue hockey stick stripes on the fuselage and a blue tail, and an all-white scheme.
Following its restructuring, the new hybrid Mandala livery reflects its status as Tiger Airways' partner airline in Indonesia by keeping the blue 'mandala' title on the fuselage of the Airbus A320 but having its wingtips and logo on the tail replaced with Tiger's stripes and colours.
Mandala resumed operations in December 2012 with a daily flight between Jakarta and Medan. It was also announced in the same press release that the airline’s first international destination would be Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. However, a few days later, Tiger quietly opened a new Medan-Singapore route for booking on its website, with flights commencing 20 April 2012 and operated by Mandala.
- Java & Bali
- Hong Kong
Terminated destinations (served by the old Mandala Airlines)
- Australia - Perth
- Indonesia - Ambon, Balikpapan, Banda Aceh, Bandar Lampung, Banjarmasin, Batam, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jambi, Kendari, Kupang, Makassar, Malang, Manado, Mataram, Palembang, Palu, Pangkal Pinang, Semarang, Sorong, Tarakan
- Macau - Macau
The table below illustrates routes operated by Mandala (designated RI). Mandala's Indonesian network is supplemented by Tiger Airways Singapore (designated TR), which flies Singapore-Jakarta Soekarno-Hatta, Singapore-Yogyakarta (from 1 July 2013) and Singapore-Bandung (from 1 August 2013).
|Denpasar-Bali||Indonesia||DPS||WADD||Jakarta Soekarno-Hatta, Singapore|
|Hong Kong||Hong Kong||HKG||VHHH||Jakarta Soekarno-Hatta [begins 24 July 2013]|
|Jakarta||Indonesia||CGK||WIII||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Denpasar-Bali, Hong Kong [begins 24 July 2013], Kuala Lumpur, Medan, Padang, Pekanbaru, Singapore, Surabaya, Yogyakarta|
|Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||KUL||WMKK||Jakarta Soekarno-Hatta, Surabaya|
|Medan||Indonesia||MES||WIMM||Jakarta Soekarno-Hatta, Pekanbaru, Singapore|
|Pekanbaru||Indonesia||PKU||WIBB||Jakarta Soekarno-Hatta, Medan, Singapore, Yogyakarta|
|Singapore||Singapore||SIN||WSSS||Denpasar-Bali, Jakarta Soekarno-Hatta, Medan, Pekanbaru, Surabaya|
|Surabaya||Indonesia||SUB||WARR||Jakarta Soekarno-Hatta, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore|
|Yogyakarta||Indonesia||JOG||WARJ||Jakarta Soekarno-Hatta, Pekanbaru|
Terminated routes (served by Tiger Mandala)
- Jakarta - Pontianak
- Padang - Singapore
- Surabaya - Bali
Mandala Airlines adopts the same low-frills concept of Tiger Airways by offering a single class service on all its 180-seat Airbus A320 aircraft. There is a buy-on-board food and beverage service but no in-flight entertainment is offered, except for the in-flight magazine. Preferred seats can be reserved online during the booking process, otherwise they are allocated during airport check-in. Other ancillary services offered to passengers include Tiger's priority boarding "board-me-first".
Under the old Mandala Priority Privileges programme, the airline offered a baggage allowance of 20 kg (44 lb) per passenger, with an extra 5 kg (11 lb) for priority passengers. Priority passengers also benefited from choice seats at the front of the aircraft, free airport lounge access and free food and beverages in both lounges and in-flight.
Following the restructuring which saw Tiger Airways become one of its key investors, Mandala's original website has been replaced by a modified Tiger Airways website featuring its new hybrid logo instead of Tiger's. However the domain mandalaair.com has been retained and this contains a temporary special link for customers holding on to Mandala's unused tickets following the company's suspension in 2011, to exchange for travel vouchers for use on Tiger Mandala flights. In addition to this website, bookings for Mandala tickets can be made across the entire Tiger Airways booking system which includes jet flights operated by Tiger's Philippine-based associated company SEAir.
|Aircraft||In fleet ||Order ||Passengers||Notes|
Mandala's previous fleet includes the following types:
- Lockheed L-188 Electra (withdrawn by 1992)
- Vickers Viscount (withdrawn by 1992)
- Hawker Siddeley HS 748
- Fokker F.28 Mks. 3000 and 4000
- NAMC YS-11
- Antonov An-12 (operated by Air Sofia for Mandala Airlines)
- Boeing 727-200
- Boeing 737-200 (withdrawn by February 2008)
- Boeing 737-400 (withdrawn by January 2009)
- Airbus A319-100
Incidents and accidents
During its 40 years of operation, Mandala Airlines has experienced two significant accidents and several minor incidents. However, it has had no incidents since 2007, when it began to retire older aircraft and introduce newer ones.
- On February 1, 1975, a Vickers Viscount overran the runway during landing at Taipei Songshan Airport, Taiwan and ended up in a paddy field. Another Viscount overran the runway of Manado Airport on January 7, 1976. The aircraft was landing in intermittent slight rain, touching down 520 meters (1706 feet) down the runway, crossed a ditch and 3 drains before coming to rest 180 meters (591 feet) past the end of the runway. There were no fatalities in both incidents.
- On October 18, 1977, a Hawker Siddeley HS 748 crashed in Manila, Philippines during a certification flight. Two of three crew members were killed.
- On May 1, 1981, a Vickers Viscount ran off the runway at Semarang, causing the right main gear and nose gear to collapse. Another Viscount belly-landed at Yogyakarta on January 13, 1985. In both cases there were no fatalities but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
- On November 30, 1985, a Lockheed L-188 Electra had its main gear wheels separated when approaching for landing at Padang. The wheels fell through the roof of a watch repair shop. The aircraft was diverted to Medan for a wheels-up landing. All propellers broke off and the aircraft burst into flames after coming to rest. All 45 passengers and crew members survived, but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
- On July 24, 1992, Mandala Airlines Flight 660, a Vickers Viscount flying from Makassar to Ambon, crashed into Inahau Hill (located at Liliboy village, about 15 km (9 mi) west of the intended destination) while on an instrument approach in a heavy rainstorm. All 70 passengers and crew members were killed. At the time, it was Indonesia's third worst aviation accident.
- On September 5, 2005, Mandala Airlines Flight 091, a Boeing 737-200 departing for Jakarta, crashed seconds after taking off from Medan. Out of 117 passengers and crew members, 100 died. One passenger died later from injuries sustained during the crash in a hospital. As the aircraft crashed into a heavily populated residential area, 49 persons on the ground were also killed, and at least 26 were injured. This accident is the second worst aviation accident in Indonesia, and also the world's worst accident involving a Boeing 737-200.
- On October 3, 2006, a Boeing 737-200 arriving from Balikpapan skidded 50 meters off the runway during landing at Tarakan. There were no injuries. Visibility was below 400 meters at the time due to heavy haze. Months later, on December 18, another Boeing 737-200 skidded off the runway at Malang due to adverse weather. No injuries were reported to the 77 passengers on board. Malang was the scene for another incident on November 1, 2007, when another Boeing 737-200 skidded when landing due to adverse weather. No serious injury occurred, but 5 persons were slightly injured out of 89 passengers and crew members.
- Marbun, R: "Democratization and Reform", p. 56. UNISCI Discussion Paper, No. 15 (October 2007).
- Gaya Bisnis Militer di Tiga Kota
- Mandala Airlines is awarded by the PR Society of Indonesia
- Bisnis Militer: Pemerintah Batal Ambil Mandala
- Indonesia's Cardig buys ailing Mandala Airlines
- Warwick Brady: Leading a transformation at Indonesia's Mandala
- Mandala Airlines Corporate Profile
- Mandala appointed SIAEC for its aircraft maintenance
- Extract from Commission Regulation of 14 July 2009 amending Regulation 474/2006 establishing the Community list of air carriers which are subject to an operating ban within the Community
- Penilaian Kinerja Maskapai Penerbangan Periode X (Juni 2009)
- Mandala is moving to Terminal 3
- Mandala Airlines Buka Empat Rute Internasional
- 曼達拉航空取消一周航班 - Exmoo! - 在澳門．看世界
- New Investors Could Return Mandala to Indonesia’s Skies | The Jakarta Globe
- Mandala to focus on low cost carrier market: Expert | The Jakarta Post
- Indonesia's Mandala Airlines suspends flight over debt problems http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSJKB00421520110112
- "Mandala aims to fly as soon as acquisition is finally closed". September 26, 2011.
- "Mandala may return to skies in mid-February". January 12, 2012.
- Mandala Priority Privileges
- "Mandala Datangkan Pesawat Ke-7, Airbus A320 Berharga Rp 760 Miliar". March 16, 2013.
- "Mandala Siap Datangkan Lagi 18 Pesawat Airbus A320". March 16, 2013.
- ASN Aircraft accident Vickers 806 Viscount PK-RVM Taipei-Sung Shan Airport (TSA)
- ASN Aircraft accident Vickers 806 Viscount PK-RVK Manado-Samratulangi Airport (MDC)
- ASN Aircraft accident Hawker Siddeley HS-748-232 Srs. 2 PK-RHS Manila
- ASN Aircraft accident Vickers 832 Viscount PK-RVN Semarang-Achmad Yani Airport (SRG)
- ASN Aircraft accident Vickers 806 Viscount PK-RVT Yogyakarta-Adisutjipto Airport (JOG)
- ASN Aircraft accident Lockheed L-188C Electra PK-RLG Medan-Polonia Airport (MES)
- ASN Aircraft accident Vickers 816 Viscount PK-RVU Ambon-Pattimura Airport (AMQ)
- ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 737-230 PK-RIM Medan-Polonia Airport (MES)
- Jet skids off runway amid thick haze in Indonesia
- Mandala B737 skidded off runway
- Mandala Airlines B 737 Overshoots Runway – 5 Injured