MedLibrary.org

Open Source Encyclopedia

Mongol invasion of Europe

Mongol conquests in Asia and Europe
Genghis Khan empire-en.svg
The route of the first Mongol expedition in Russia - 1223
Date a) 1223, 1236–1240
b) late 1240–1241
c) April 11, 1241
d) 1242
Location
a) Modern Russia, Ukraine and Belarus
b) Parts of southern and eastern Poland
c) Medieval Hungary
d) northern Bulgaria
Result
a) Decisive Mongol victory resulting in principalities of Kievan State becoming vassals of the Mongol Golden Horde.
b) Mongol victory
c) Mongol victory, but Mongol forces withdraw for a kurultai
d) Mongol victory resulting in the Second Bulgarian Empire becoming a vassal of the Mongol Golden Horde
Territorial
changes

a) Kievan Rus' principalities added to Mongol Empire
b) Kingdom of Poland subject to Mongol raids
c) Parts of Kingdom of Hungary controlled by Mongol Empire
d) Second Bulgarian Empire
e) Cumania
Belligerents



Mongol Empire


a) Vladimir-Suzdal
Alex K Halych-Volhynia.svg Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Nowogród.svg Novgorod Republic


Principality of Ryazan
Volga Bulgaria.png Volga Bulgaria
Alans
CumaniaCoA.png Cuman-Kipchak confederation
Circassians
North caucasian peoples
b) Coat of Arms of the Polish Crown.svg Polish states and allies
c) Coa Hungary Country History Bela III (1172-1196).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Croatia
Insignia Germany Order Teutonic.svg Teutonic Knights
Crusades TF.JPG Knights Templar
d)Coat of arms of the Second Bulgarian Empire.svg Second Bulgarian Empire
Commanders and leaders
a) Batu Khan
Möngke Khan
Subutai
Jebe
Burundai
Berke
Orda
Güyük Khan
b) Baidar (possibly  )
Kadan
Orda Khan
c) Batu Khan
Subutai
Shiban
Berke
Burundai
d) Batu Khan
Kadan
a) Alex K Halych-Volhynia.svg Mstislav Mstislavich
Yuri II of Vladimir  
Alex K Kyiv Michael 2.svgMstislav III of Kiev  (POW), executed
Dmitro
Khan Köten
b) Alex K Halych-Volhynia.svg Daniel of Galicia
Various, most prominent being Wappen Schlesiens.png Henry II the Pious  
c) Coa Hungary Country History Béla IV (1235-1270).svg King Béla IV
Alex K Kingdom of Hungary.svg Prince Coloman  (DOW)
Archbishop Ugrin Csák  
Archbishop Matthias Rátót  
Palatine Denis Tomaj  
d) Ivan Asen II
Strength
a) 20,000 in 1223
In 1236, More than 35,000 Mongols+More than 40,000 Turkic auxiliaries
b) about 10,000 (one tumen)[1]
c) Former estimation:
70,000[2]
New estimation:
30,000[3][4]
a) 80,000 in 1223
b) over 10,000-30,000[5]+at least 500 armed men from Templar order.
c) Former estimation:
80,000[6]
New estimation:
25,000[3][4]
including Hungarian heavy cavalry, Knights Templar, nomadic light cavalry mercenaries and Serbian valiants. Thousands of Cumans and Kipchaks
Casualties and losses
a) More than 7,000
b) Minimal
c) Few thousands killed[4]
a) 500,000 (6-7% of the population of Rus)[7]
b) Heavy
c) Tens of thousand killed[4]