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|Location:||Jumel Terrace, Manhattan, New York City, New York|
|Architectural style:||Palladian, Georgian, and Federal|
|Added to NRHP:||October 15, 1966|
|Designated NHL:||January 20, 1961|
The Morris-Jumel Mansion (also known as the Roger and Mary Philipse Morris House), located in Washington Heights, is the oldest house in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It served as a headquarters for both sides in the American Revolution.
It was built by Roger Morris in 1765 and reflects the Palladian style of architecture. Morris, the nephew of a successful English architect, was greatly influenced by the designs of the 16th-century Italian architect Palladio. His residence includes a monumental portico and pediment, supported by grand Tuscan columns, and a large, two-story octagonal addition at the rear. The octagon room is believed to be the first in the country.
The mansion is located on a parcel known as “Mount Morris” from which the Harlem River, the Bronx, Long Island Sound, the Hudson River and the Jersey Palisades are visible. It is located within the boundaries of the Jumel Terrace Historic District.
The mansion also overlooked Coogan's Hollow and the baseball/football stadium known as the Polo Grounds during its existence from the late 1880s to the early 1960s. The mansion is sometimes visible in old pictures of the ballfield that show Coogan's Bluff, such as the one shown here taken in 1905.
Roger Morris and Mary Philipse lived in the mansion for ten years from 1765 to 1775, when the war started. As British loyalists, they went to England after the Revolution succeeded.
Between September 14 and October 20, 1776, General George Washington used the mansion as his temporary headquarters after he and his army were forced to evacuate Brooklyn Heights following their loss to the British Army under the command of General William Howe in the Battle of Long Island.
This house is one of the major remaining landmarks of Battle of Harlem Heights, after which it became the headquarters of British Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton, and the Hessian commander Baron Wilhelm von Knyphausen. The Morris-Jumel Mansion later hosted many other distinguished visitors, including dinner guests John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton and John Quincy Adams.
Stephen Jumel and his wife Eliza Jumel purchased the house in 1810. After Stephen's death, Eliza married the controversial ex-vice president Aaron Burr who lived at the house with her in the 1830s. They married in the parlor, which can be seen today. After Burr's death on Sept 14, 1836, Eliza lived in the house alone until she died in 1865. In 1882, the Morris heirs broke up the 115 acres (0.47 km2) of the estate into 1058 lots.
The house was purchased by New York City in 1903.
Today, the house is lavishly decorated with period furnishings and careful reproductions of period carpets and wallpaper. It is open to the public as a historic house museum.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09.
- New+York County listings at nationalregisterofhistoricplaces.com
- "Morris-Jumel Mansion". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-09-13.
- "Morris-Jumel Mansion". Harlem and the Heights. New York Architecture. Retrieved 2013-05-05.
- Dolkart, Andrew S. & Postal, Matthew A.; Guide to New York City Landmarks, 3rd Edition; New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2004. ISBN 0-471-36900-4 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK]; p.212.
- "History/Architecture". Morris-Jumel.org. Retrieved 2013-05-05.
- Stephen Lash and Betty Ezequelle (February 1972). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Jumel Terrace Historic District". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Retrieved 2011-03-26.
- Places Where Women Made History: the Morris-Jumel Mansion, at National Park Service
- White, Norval & Willensky, Elliot (2000). AIA Guide to New York City, 4th Edition. New York Chapter, American Institute of Architects: Crown Publishers/Random House. p. 524. ISBN 0-8129-3106-8 / 0-8129-3107-6.
- Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (1892). "Jumel, Eliza Bowen". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
- Richard Greenwood (August 11, 1975). National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Morris-Jumel Mansion. National Park Service. and PDF (2.46 MB)
- Bob Vila (1996). "Bob Vila's Guide to Historic Homes of America.". A&E Network.