|Full name||Paris Saint-Germain Football Club|
|Nickname(s)||PSG, Paris SG, Les Rouge-et-Bleu, Les Parisiens|
|Founded||12 August 1970|
|Ground||Parc des Princes
|Owner||Qatar Investment Authority|
|2012–13||Ligue 1, 1st|
|Website||Club home page|
Paris Saint-Germain Football Club, also known simply as Paris Saint-Germain and familiarly as Paris SG or PSG (IPA: ), is a professional association football club based in Paris, France. The capital club was founded in 1970, thanks to the merger of Paris FC and Stade Saint-Germain. PSG has been playing in Ligue 1 since 1974. Paris Saint-Germain have won 3 Ligue 1, 1 Ligue 2, 8 Coupe de France, 3 Coupe de la Ligue, 2 Trophée des Champions, 1 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup and 1 UEFA Intertoto Cup.
The Parc des Princes has been the home stadium of Paris Saint-Germain since 1974. The Camp des Loges has been operating as a training centre for the club since 1970. The Tournoi de Paris has been hosted by PSG at the Parc des Princes since 1975. The crest and shirt of PSG were mainly designed by Daniel Hechter. The crest represents Paris through the Eiffel Tower and Saint-Germain-en-Laye through the fleur-de-lys between the legs of the tower. The shirt is blue with a red central vertical bar framed by white edgings. Allez Paris Saint-Germain, to the tune of "Go West" by Pet Shop Boys, is the official anthem of PSG. The lyrics of "Go West" were rewritten following suggestions made by the fans. Germain the lynx, meanwhile, is the mascot of the club.
Paris Saint-Germain shares an intense rivalry with Olympique de Marseille and contest the most notorious football match in France, known as Le Classique. PSG is the second best-supported football club in France after arch-rivals Marseille. "Ici c'est Paris" (This is Paris) is one of the club's most popular mottos. Qatar Investment Authority has been the sole shareholder of PSG since 2012. Following QIA's takeover, PSG became the richest club in France and one of the richest clubs in the world.
Established on 12 August 1970 after a merger between Paris FC and Stade Saint-Germain, Paris Saint-Germain have always represented both Paris and nearby Saint-Germain-en-Laye. And with so many people eager to see a big club wearing the capital's colours once again, the nascent team grew at a stunning pace early on. Top-tier status was attained within four years and by the end of the 1970s, "Les Rouge-et-Bleu" were ready to embark upon a historic decade. PSG tasted French Cup honours in 1982 and 1983, before capturing their first league crown in 1986 – breakthroughs that opened the doors to Europe and some memorable encounters, particularly with Juventus.
As significant as those successes were, however, the 1990s proved even more fruitful, with Paris Saint-Germain entering a golden age after television giants Canal+ bought the club in May 1991. Now enjoying serious investment, the capital outfit were able to set their sights steadily higher. PSG were on the move and between 1992 and 1998 they contested two UEFA Cup Winners' Cup finals – winning in 1996 – reached the UEFA Champions League semifinals once and twice advanced to the same stage of the UEFA Cup. On the domestic scene, results were just as satisfying, with PSG celebrating another League title, three French Cups, two League Cups and just as many Champions Trophy wins.
Paris Saint-Germain has never threatened to hit those same heights again. Three more trophies have been landed, interspersed with frequent crisis. PSG's form slipped to 9th in 2004–05 and 2005–06. In 2006–07, they did not impress, failing to reach either cup final and finishing 15th, just three places from relegation. Following their sale by Canal+ to Colony Capital, Butler Capital Partners and Morgan Stanley, PSG continued to lose momentum in the league eventually finishing 16th, just three points above the relegation zone. PSG nonetheless won the League Cup and reached the French Cup Final, losing to Ligue 1 champions Olympique Lyonnais. In 2008–09, PSG regained fitness and struggled for the title the most part of the season, but finished 6th and out of European action. Colony Capital then acquired all the shares of Morgan Stanley, becoming owners of 95% of the club. The 2009–10 season, became the first time in French football history that both the male and female sections of a club won both the country's national cups. PSG claimed the French Cup, while the Ladies landed the Coupe de France Féminine.
Crest and shirt
The first crest of Paris Saint-Germain appeared in 1970 and consisted of a ball and a vessel, which are powerful symbols of Paris. It was used during the following three seasons. The historical crest of the capital club appeared in 1973: the red silhouette of the Eiffel Tower with the white royal cradle of French king Louis XIV and the fleur-de-lys between its legs on a blue background with white edging. The historical crest represents Paris through the Eiffel Tower and Saint-Germain through the royal cradle and the fleur-de-lys taken from its coat of arms. Through these symbols, the crest obviously reflects the merger of two clubs (Paris FC and Stade Saint-Germain) into a new club (Paris Saint-Germain). It was the first time that the symbols of both Paris and Saint-Germain-en-Laye were represented on the same crest. According to former PSG coach Robert Vicot, the crest was invented by both Daniel Hechter and a certain designer named Vallot. Hechter introduced the Eiffel Tower in the crest before Vallot had the ingenious idea of placing the birthplace of Louis XIV (born in the Château de Saint-Germain) underneath the tower. Former PSG major shareholder Canal+ was the first to try to replace the historical crest in 1992. The new model had the acronym ‘PSG’ and underneath it ‘Paris Saint-Germain’. This caused the supporters' anger and the historical crest returned to the shirt. Nevertheless, Canal+'s design persisted and was mainly used for the club's communication until 1996. The historical crest received a makeover in 2013 under PSG president Nasser Al-Khelaifi's approval with a renovated and modern design. PSG shareholder Qatar Investment Authority wanted to take full advantage of the city's global appeal and the new crest clearly brought to the fore the name ‘PARIS’ which is written in big bold letters. On top of that, the cradle which marked the birth of Louis XIV was discarded and in place the fleur-de-lys sits solely under the Eiffel Tower. Also, the founding year 1970 made way with ‘Saint-Germain’ taking its place at the bottom.
The first shirt of new club Paris Saint-Germain, product of the merger between Paris FC and Stade Saint-Germain in 1970, was red. Fashion designer Daniel Hechter collaborated with the club to design the historical shirt which would become a strong symbol of the club in 1973. PSG adopted the red and blue colors of Paris FC and combined them with the white of Stade Saint-Germain. The shirt was blue with a red central vertical bar framed by white edgings. Legend has it, however, that Daniel Hechter was so impressed by Ajax's eye-catching jersey that he used it as the inspiration for Paris Saint-Germain's shirt, though he obviously changed the colours to match the French flag. Since then, it has been the club home shirt, despite proposed implementations of new designs, with the main reason being the supporters' rejection. However, the tone and shade of the red and blue has changed over time, as has the dimension and alignment of the red central band. Former Paris Saint-Germain president Francis Borelli was the first to try to replace the Hechter design in 1982. The new home shirt, very similar to that of Olympique Lyonnais, was mostly white decorated with two fine red and blue vertical bands. Under pressure from fans, the home shirt returned to the original Hechter design in 1995. Le Coq Sportif became Paris Saint-Germain's first official shirt provider in 1970 until Adidas took over from 1975 to 1976, before a return to the first brand until 1977. Pony was the supplier between 1977 and 1978, before another joint effort with Le Coq Sportif until 1986. Adidas returned until 1989, at which point Nike took over supply duties and they remain the shirt supplier to the present day.
The Stade Georges Lefèvre of the Camp des Loges was the main stadium of Paris Saint-Germain from 1970 to 1974. The Camp des Loges has been the training centre of PSG since its foundation in 1970. Since the creation of the PSG Youth Academy in 1974, it has also served as the home facility for the CFA, U-19 and U-17 sides, which train and play their home matches at the Stade Georges Lefèvre. The Camp des Loges was renovated in 2008. Paris Saint-Germain played their first match at the Parc des Princes against Red Star Paris on 10 November 1973. "Les Parisiens" became the sole tenants of the Parc des Princes in July 1974. PSG shareholders Canal+ took control of the SESE, the company which holds the concession of the Parc des Princes, in 1992. The City of Paris extended the concession of the stadium for another 15 years in 1999. Paris Saint-Germain completely took over the Parc des Princes and the capital club's headquarters were moved to a new edifice within the stadium in 2002. PSG's highest average home attendance was registered during the 1999–2000 season with 43,185 spectators per match. Paris Saint-Germain's record home attendance is 49,407 spectators and was registered in the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup quarter-finals match against Waterschei in 1983.
Paris Saint-Germain is the second most popular football club in France after Olympique de Marseille. PSG is also one of the most widely supported French clubs in the world. Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy is one of the club's most prominent supporters. The capital club is known to draw their support from both far-right white nationalists and Île de France's multi-ethnic population. During the 1970s, PSG were struggling to attract a fervent fan-base to the Parc des Princes and so decided to offer cheap tickets in the Boulogne to young people. The offer was a big hit and the new fans, influenced by Liverpool's famous Spion Kop stand in Anfield, created the Kop of Boulogne stand (KoB), which immersed in casual hooligan culture. The dubious English role model was the inspiration behind France's most infamous fans, the kobistes. These fans shaped the most notorious stand in French football. The home of French hooliganism, the KoB has been synonymous with violence, racism and fascism since the 1980s, when skinheads took over part of the stand, lending the name far‑right connotations. Separate gangs were formed in the KoB, united under an English inspirated logo: a bulldog's head on a tricolor map of France. The Boulogne Boys, the most high-profile of these groups, was formed in 1985. The KoB became the core not only of the most loyal PSG fans, but also of the most extremist. The Parc des Princes became known as the most hostile stadium in all of France.
Despite PSG won the Ligue 1 in 1986, the team enjoyed its worst top flight attendance record in 1991. The press considered the violence at the stadium to be the culprit and the PSG board started subsidizing supporters who, sick of the chaos in the KoB, were willing to move across the field. Concerned by the behaviour of racist fans at the KoB, PSG encouraged the creation of a rival kop at the other end, the Auteuil, presumably to marginalise the troublemakers. And so the Supras Auteuil and the Tigris Mystic, the most high-profile groups of the Auteuil, appeared in the early 1990s. However, this resulted in a new problem as the Auteuil became the home of multicultural PSG fans who were unwelcome in the predominantly white KoB. Despite tentative moves to break up the KoB, the violence escalated. Incidents occurred wherever PSG travelled and only multiplied with the emergence of rival stand Auteuil. Unlike the English-inspired KoB, Auteuil fans stylized their support on the Italian ultra model. Average attendance at the Parc des Princes soared, but the violence continued with injuries and arrests especially in Le Classique against arch-rivals Marseille. Additionally, the Boulogne Boys, one of Ligue 1's most notorious firm, fought throughout the 1990s and 2000s with fans of clubs from all over Europe.
PSG fans have been killed in the crossfire. After a 2006 UEFA Cup match against Hapoel Tel Aviv at the Parc des Princes, KoB member Julien Quemener was shot and killed by a police officer trying to protect a Hapoel supporter whom the group was attacking. The KoB also unfurled a banner which referred to Lens fans as incestuous, jobless paedophiles during the 2008 League Cup Final. The episode led to the dissolution of the Boulogne Boys, one of the oldest hooligan groups in France. However, PSG fans spend more time fighting against each other, than fighting against other teams' counterparts. The KoB groups first targeted Tigris Mystic, which dissolved in 2006 due to the attacks. The violence reemerged in 2009, when the kobistes ire was trained on the Supras Auteuil, who responded in kind. Ahead of a league match against Marseille in 2010, the Supras murdered KoB member Yann Lorence. The event led to the dissolution of the Supras Auteuil. Paris Saint-Germain had lost its two major supporters groups in the space of two years. Additionally, the capital club launched "Tous PSG", an anti-violence plan that annihilated all supporters groups in the stadium. PSG allowed them back in 2011. Minor groups such as Hoolicool, Titi-Fosi and Vikings 27 returned, but the majority of the casuals and ultras didn't, alleging the club had "lost its soul". Consequently, where there used to be a raucous and even threatening atmosphere behind each goal, now there is a largely dispirited crowd.
Le Classique (French pronunciation: , The Classic), also known as Derby de France or Le Classico, is a football match contested between French top-flight clubs Paris Saint-Germain and Olympique de Marseille. The term "Le Classique" is modeled on the El Clásico, contested between Real Madrid and Barcelona. These meetings became important during the late 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. Canal + and Bernard Tapie promoted confrontations between the two clubs, making these matches of interest for all French football fans. The tension between OM and PSG fans is legendary, and both clubs' world-class stadia, the Stade Vélodrome and the Parc des Princes, respectively, are renowned for the white-hot atmosphere and fervent fans. More and more, the various groups of Marseille and Parisian supporters have hated and battled each other. Important security measures are taken to prevent confrontations between the fans, but violent episodes still often occur every time the duo meet.
Like all major rivalries, the antipathy between Paris Saint-Germain and Olympique de Marseille extends outside the pitch as Paris and Marseille are the two largest cities in France, while the duo are the most successful and influential football clubs in the country having won eleven Ligue 1 titles, eighteen French Cups, six League Cups and five Champions Trophy. Both clubs are also the only French clubs to have won a major European trophy, as PSG claimed the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1996 and OM landed the UEFA Champions League in 1993. The duo were the dominant forces before the appearance of Olympique Lyonnais during the 21st century. Despite their recent ups and downs, PSG and OM remain, along with Saint-Étienne, the only French clubs with a truly nationwide, faithful and passionate fan base, giving the country's biggest match a special atmosphere.
Ownership and finances
Thanks to the financial backing from local wealthy businessmen Guy Crescent, Pierre-Étienne Guyot and Henri Patrelle, Paris Saint-Germain was founded in 1970. Since its inception and like many other French clubs, PSG has had some difficulties in the economic field. Indeed, despite a good debut during the 1970-71 season with a profit of 1.5 million francs, the trend reversed and the club's debt increased throughout the years. PSG president Henri Patrelle, searching for financial support, made way for fashion designer Daniel Hechter in 1973, who allowed the club to obtain professional status. Hechter launched an investment offer to help PSG palliate a serious financial crisis: 10,000 francs for one lifetime subscription at the Parc des Princes. Famous French singer and PSG fan Henri Salvador took four. However, Hechter was banned for life from football by the French Football Federation following the scandal of double ticketing at the Parc des Princes in 1978. Francis Borelli replaced him as PSG president. Under his 13-year mandate, PSG became the leading club in Paris, despite competition from Paris FC and Matra Racing, and captured its first trophies. However, Borelli's old-style management didn't allowed the club to properly handle the emergent football business during the 1980s and by the early-1990s PSG was in financial agony with an immense debt of 50 million francs. For the first time, the Paris City Council, presided by the mayor of Paris, refused to wipe the slate clean.
French TV channel Canal+ gave reprieve to the ailing Paris Saint-Germain after purchasing the club in 1991. PSG received a whopping 40% of their income from televised games and became one of the richest clubs in France. Thanks to this money, PSG embarked on a spending spree, buying the best talent in France and the world, and entered a golden age, winning nine trophies. Canal+ became the club's majority shareholder in 1997 and the sole shareholder of PSG in 2005. Canal+ managed the club through delegated-president Michel Denisot during the 1990s. From 1991 to 1998, PSG maintained its finances healthy and the club's expenditures stood at €50m per season thanks to the rise of television rights and the increasing number of spectators at the Parc des Princes, as well as an excellent performance in national and European competitions. Following the departure of Michel Denisot in 1998, the club began to accumulate debts that reached €96m in 2002. The net debt fell to €8m in 2004 after recapitalizing the club. PSG's finances, however, remained in the red. Between 2004 and 2006, PSG was the only French club with a large deficit, registering losses of €30m. The club's turnover, however, increased from €69m to €80m. Canal+ sold Paris Saint-Germain to investment firms Colony Capital, Butler Capital Partners and Morgan Stanley for €41m in 2006. The club's debt was wiped clean by Canal+. Under its new owners, PSG's turnover reached the €100m and the losses gradually decreased over the years to only €5m in 2009.
Colony Capital purchased the majority of the shares of Butler Capital Partners in 2008, though they retained a 5% stake in the club. Colony Capital acquired all the shares of Morgan Stanley in 2009, becoming owners of 95% of the club. Colony Capital revealed in 2010 that they were looking for new investors to make Paris Saint-Germain a true title contender for years to come. Qatar Investment Authority became the majority shareholder of PSG after buying a controlling 70% of the shares in 2011. Colony Capital (29%) and Butler Capital Partners (1%) remained minority shareholders. QIA bought the club in a deal worth €50m, which covered an estimated €15-20m in debt and losses of €19m from the 2010–11 season. PSG became the richest club in France and one of the richest clubs in the world. PSG splashed a French record €108m and were the biggest spenders in the world for the 2011–12 season. Qatar Investment Authority purchased the remaining 30% stake held by Colony Capital and Butler Capital Partners and became the sole shareholder of Paris Saint-Germain in 2012. The transaction valued the entire club at €100m.
France captain Jean Djorkaeff joined Paris Saint-Germain in 1970. He became the first licensed professional player and first captain of the club. Thiago Silva is the current captain of PSG, replacing Mamadou Sakho after tactical decisions by the club's manager, Carlo Ancelotti. Pauleta is the club's all-time top scorer with 110 goals. PSG.fr chose "The Eagle of Azores" as the best player in the club's history. Not even the Portuguese striker could match Carlos Bianchi's feat. "El Goleador" spent two seasons at the capital and recorded 71 goals in 80 appearances with two awards for top scorer of the Ligue 1. Mustapha Dahleb is the capital's top scorer in the league with 85 strikes. PSG's success in front of goal was in great part thanks to the emblematic Safet Sušić. The Yugoslav international scored 85 goals and made a record 61 assists. France Football chose Sušić as the best player in the club's history. Jean-Marc Pilorget became the club's all-time most capped player with 435 matches. George Weah is the club's all-time top scorer in European competitions with 16 goals. "Mister George" is also the first and last PSG player to won the Ballon d'Or and the FIFA World Player of the Year. Javier Pastore and Ronaldinho have the honor of being the club's most expensive transactions. "El Flaco" Pastore's €43m deal from Italian club Palermo is both PSG and Ligue 1's record signing. Ronaldinho's €32m transfer to Barcelona remains the capital's highest sale to date. The most successful players are Alain Roche and Paul Le Guen with nine major trophies won.
French teams are limited to four players without EU citizenship. The squad list includes only the principal nationality of each player; several non-European players on the squad have dual citizenship with an EU country. Also, players from the ACP countries—countries in Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific that are signatories to the Cotonou Agreement—are not counted against non-EU quotas due to the Kolpak ruling.
- As of 22 January 2013).
Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Out on loan
Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Reserves and Academy
The Paris Saint-Germain F.C. Reserves and Academy are the reserve team and academy of Paris Saint-Germain. The Camp des Loges serves as the home facility for the club's Reserves and Academy sides and Female sides, which play their home matches at the Stade Georges Lefèvre. It is located in the commune of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, located in the western suburbs of Paris. The facility is known for its high-level training and several prominent players have passed through the youth training centre. Notable graduates of the academy include Nicolas Anelka, Luis Fernández, Mamadou Sakho, Lorik Cana, Jean-Marc Pilorget and Jérôme Leroy. Bertrand Reuzeau is the director of the centre. Paris Saint-Germain also has a pre-training centre, which houses players aged 15 and under, located in Verneuil-sur-Seine. The Camp des Loges was recognised by the FFF as one of the best formation and pre-formation centres in France, being classified as Elite in 2009. PSG Reserves and Academy are one of the most prestigious in French football having won three Coupe de Paris, three Championnat National U-19, two Challenge du Meilleur Club de Jeunes, one Championnat DH Paris, one Coupe Gambardella, one Championnat National U-17, one Championnat National des Cadets U-16 and one Tournoi Carisport.
Board of directors
|Delegate Director General||Jean-Claude Blanc|
|General Manager||Phillipe Boindrieux|
|Director of Football||Leonardo|
|Ground (capacity and dimensions)||Parc des Princes (48,712 / 252m x 191m)|
Source: Ligue 1
|Assistant Coaches||Claude Makélélé, Paul Clement, Angelo Castellazzi|
|Chief Performance Officer||none|
|Goalkeeping Coach||Gilles Bourges|
|Physical Trainers||Giovanni Mauri, Raphaël Févre, Simon Colinet, Denis Lefebve|
|Head Doctor||Éric Rolland|
|Physiotherapists||Bruno Le Natur, Jérôme Andral, Gaël Pasquier|
Paris Saint-Germain have had 17 presidents since the appointment of Pierre-Étienne Guyot in 1970. The most successful president of PSG is Michel Denisot (1991–1998) with eight major trophies won: one League title, three French Cups, two League Cups, one Champions Trophy and one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup. The longest-running president is Francis Borelli with 13 years in charge of the capital club (1978–1991). Nasser Al-Khelaifi is the current president of Paris Saint-Germain. Association PSG, meanwhile, has known three chairmen since 1991. The most successful chairman of PSG is Bernard Brochand (1991–2001) with nine major trophies won: one League title, three French Cups, two League Cups, two Champions Trophies and one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup. He is also the club's longest-serving chairman in terms of time, with 10 years in charge of the club. Simon Tahar has been chairman of Association PSG since 2006.
Paris Saint-Germain have had 24 managers since the appointment of Pierre Phelipon in 1970. PSG's most successful manager is Luis Fernández with five major trophies won: one French Cup, one League Cup, one Champions Trophy, one Cup Winners' Cup and one Intertoto Cup. He is also Paris Saint-Germain's longest-serving manager in terms of matches with 244. Luis Fernández and Georges Peyroche are the capital club's longest-serving managers in terms of time, both with 5 years in charge. Carlo Ancelotti is the current manager of Paris Saint-Germain.
- As of 12 May 2013).
- Ligue 1
- Coupe de France
PSG Ladies is a professional women's football club which has been the female section of Paris Saint-Germain since 1991. PSG is managed by Camillo Vaz. The capital club is chaired by Simon Tahar. The Stade Georges Lefèvre of the Camp des Loges in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, with a capacity of 3,500 seats, is the main stadium of the club. The 2010–11 season became their 12th season in Division 1 Féminine and their 10th consecutive season in the top-flight of French football. PSG won the Division 2 Féminine in 2001 and were promoted to the top-tier. Since then PSG has never been relegated from the Division 1 Féminine. PSG captured their first major title and most prestigious honour to date after claiming the Coupe de France Féminine in 2010. The ladies were runner-ups of the cup in 2008. PSG finished runners-up in Division 1 Féminine and qualified to the UEFA Women's Champions League for the first time in their history in 2011.
Tournoi de Paris
The Tournoi de Paris is an annual two-day pre-season football tournament hosted by Paris Saint-Germain and held at the Parc des Princes. From 1957 to 1976 it was held late in the season and since 1977 it is played before the start of the season. The tournament is the equivalent to the Amsterdam Tournament and the Emirates Cup respectively held by Ajax and Arsenal. The cup competition is named after Paris, the city where the tournament takes place. It is broadcasted by French premium pay television channel Canal+. The Tournoi de Paris involves four teams including the hosts. PSG have played in the tournament every year since 1975 and are the all-time record-holders, having won the competition seven times. Belgian outfit Anderlecht have three titles and are the most successful team other than the hosts to appear in the tournament. The current champions are Bordeaux, finishing first in the standings ahead of PSG, Roma and Porto in the 2010 edition.
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