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Temporal range: Early Miocene
Pengana robertbolesi is an extinct species of bird of prey that lived during the Early Miocene (23–16 million years ago). P. robertbolesi living relatives may include the harriers. When alive, it may have resembled a cross between the Secretary Bird and Crested Caracara.
Its remains were found in Riversleigh (Queensland), Australia. P. robertbolesi is only known from a tibiotarsus (ankle bone). However, this is of most peculiar construction, allowing the leg to be swiveled backwards and sideways. The bird was thus well adapted to reaching into holes and crevices and extracting prey. The vernacular name "Flexiraptor" was coined to reflect this ability.
- Boles, W. E. (1993a): Pengana robertbolesi, a peculiar bird of prey from the Tertiary of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland, Australia. Alcheringa 17: 19-26.
- Boles, W. E. (1993b): The fabulous flexiraptor: a bird with a strange twist. Riversleigh Notes 22: 2-3.