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Computer programming

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Computer programming (often shortened to programming or coding) is the process of designing, writing, testing, debugging, and maintaining the source code of computer programs. This source code is written in one or more programming languages. The purpose of programming is to create a set of instructions that computers use to perform specific operations or to exhibit desired behaviors. The process of writing source code often requires expertise in many different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain, specialized algorithms and formal logic.

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In the C++ programming language, decltype is an operator for querying the type of an expression. It was introduced in the current version of the C++ standard, C++11. Its primary intended use is in generic programming, where it is often difficult, or even impossible, to express types that depend on template parameters.

As generic programming techniques became increasingly popular throughout the 1990s, the need for a type-deduction mechanism was recognized. Many compiler vendors implemented their own versions of the operator, typically called typeof, and some portable implementations with limited functionality, based on existing language features were developed. In 2002, Bjarne Stroustrup proposed that a standardized version of the operator be added to the C++ language, and suggested the name "decltype", to reflect that the operator would yield the "declared type" of an expression.

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Ronald Paul "Ron" Fedkiw (; born February 27, 1968) is an associate professor in the Stanford University department of computer science and a leading researcher in the field of computer graphics, focusing on topics relating to physically based simulation of natural phenomena and level sets. His techniques have been employed in over twenty motion pictures. He has earned recognition at the 80th Academy Awards as well as from the National Academy for Science.

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A yellowing rectangular paper with circular holes and numbers on it
Credit: Journey234

Created by IBM, the IBM Port-A-Punch was a pocket-sized device intended to quickly create punched cards.

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  • ... that C was designed to allow low-level access to system resources while maintaining code portability across different platforms?
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