|President of Iran
Emblem of Iran
|Residence||Sa'dabad Palace, Tehran|
|Term length||Four years
|Inaugural holder||Abulhassan Banisadr|
|Formation||February 4, 1980|
|This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
The President of Iran is the head of government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The President is the highest popularly elected official in Iran, although the President answers to the Supreme Leader of Iran, who functions as the country's head of state. Chapter IX of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran sets forth the qualifications for presidential candidates and procedures for election, as well as the President's powers and responsibilities as "functions of the executive". These include signing treaties and other agreements with foreign countries and international organizations; administering national planning, budget, and state employment affairs; and appointing ministers subject to the approval of Parliament.
Unlike the executive in other countries, the President of Iran does not have full control over Iran's foreign policy, the armed forces, or nuclear policy, as these are ultimately under the control of the Supreme Leader.
The President of Iran is elected for a four-year term by the direct vote of the people and may not serve for more than two consecutive terms.
1st and 2nd Presidents of Iran
After the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and referendum to create the Islamic Republic on March 29 and 30, the new government needed to craft a new constitution. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, ordered an election for the Assembly of Experts, the body tasked with writing the constitution. The assembly presented the constitution on October 24, 1979, and Supreme Leader Ruhollah Khomeini and Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan approved it.
The 1979 Constitution designated the Supreme Leader as the head of state and the President and Prime Minister as the heads of government. The post of Prime Minister was abolished in 1989.
The first Iranian presidential election was held on January 25, 1980 and resulted in the election of Abulhassan Banisadr with 76% of the votes. Banisadr was impeached on June 22, 1981 by Parliament. Until the early election on July 24, 1981, the duties of the President were undertaken by the Provisional Presidential Council. Mohammad-Ali Rajai was elected President on July 24, 1981 and took office on August 2. Rajai was in office for less than one month because he and his prime minister were both assassinated. Once again a Provisional Presidential Council filled the office until October 13, 1981 when Ali Khamenei was elected president.
Qualifications and election 
The President of Iran is elected for a four-year term in a national election by universal adult suffrage for everyone of at least 18 years of age. Candidates for the presidency must be approved by the Council of Guardians, a twelve member body consisting of six clerics (selected by Iran's Supreme Leader) and six lawyers (proposed by the head of Iran's judicial system and voted in by the Parliament). According to the constitution of Iran candidates for the presidency must possess the following qualifications:
- Iranian origin;
- Iranian nationality;
- administrative capacity and resourcefulness;
- a good past record;
- trustworthiness and piety; and
- convinced belief in the fundamental principles of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the official madhhab of the country.
Within these guidelines the Council vetoes candidates who are deemed unacceptable. The approval process is considered to be a check on the president's power, and usually amounts to a small number of candidates being approved. In the 1997 election, for example, only four out of 238 presidential candidates were approved by the council. Western observers have routinely criticized the approvals process as a way for the Council and Supreme Leader to ensure that only conservative and like-minded Islamic fundamentalists can win office. However, the council rejects the criticism, citing approval of reformists in previous elections. The council rejects most of the candidates stating that they are not "a well-known political figure", a requirement by the current law.
Presidential council 
According to the Iranian constitution, when the President dies or is impeached, a special provisional Presidential Council temporarily rules in his place until an election can be held. The President automatically becomes the Head of the Supreme Council of Cultural Revolution and the Head of the Supreme Council of National Security.
Powers and responsibilities 
- Head of Government and Cabinet
- Head of the Council of National Security
- Head of the Council of Cultural Revolution
- Sends and receives all foreign ambassadors
- Selection of Vice Presidents
Oath of office 
- I, as the President, upon the Holy Qur'an and in the presence of the Iranian nation, do hereby swear in the name of Almighty God to safeguard the official Faith, the system of the Islamic republic and the Constitution of the country; to use all my talents and abilities in the discharge of responsibilities undertaken by me; to devote myself to the service of the people, glory of the country, promotion of religion and morality, support of right and propagation of justice; to refrain from being autocratic; to protect the freedom and dignity of individuals and the rights of the Nation recognized by the Constitution; to spare no efforts in safeguarding the frontiers and the political, economic and cultural freedoms of the country; to guard the power entrusted to me by the Nation as a sacred trust like an honest and faithful trustee, by seeking help from God and following the example of the Prophet of Islam and the sacred Imams, peace be upon them, and to entrust it to the one elected by the Nation after me.
Last election 
Iran's tenth presidential election was held on 12 June 2009, with incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad running against three challengers. The next morning the Islamic Republic News Agency, Iran's official news agency, announced that with two-thirds of the votes counted, Ahmadinejad had won the election with 62% of the votes cast, and that Mir-Hossein Mousavi had received 34% of the votes cast. The European Union, the United Kingdom the United States, and several western countries expressed concern over alleged irregularities during the vote, and many analysts and journalists from the United States, Europe and other western based media voiced doubts about the authenticity of the results. Meanwhile many OIC member states, as well as Russia, China, India, and Brazil, have congratulated Ahmadinejad on his victory.
Mousavi issued a statement saying, "I'm warning that I won't surrender to this charade," and urged his supporters to fight the decision, without committing acts of violence. Protests, in favour of Mousavi and against the alleged fraud, broke out in Tehran. Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei urged the nation to unite behind Ahmadinejad, labeling his victory as a "divine assessment". Mousavi lodged an official appeal against the result to the Guardian Council on 14 June. On 15 June, Khamenei announced there would be an investigation into vote-rigging claims, which would take seven to ten days. On 16 June, the Guardian Council announced it will recount the votes. However, Mousavi stated that 14 million unused ballots were missing, giving a chance to manipulate the results. On 29 June, Iran's electoral board completed the partial recount, and concluded that Ahmadinejad won the election, amidst protest from the opposition.
The inauguration of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was held on 5 August in Tehran amid protests held outside the Parliament.
|Alliance of Builders||Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (inc.)||24,527,516||62.63%|
|Green Movement||Mir-Hossein Mousavi||13,216,411||33.75%|
|Moderation and Development||Mohsen Rezaee||678,240||1.73%|
|National Trust||Mehdi Karroubi||333,635||0.85%|
|Blank or invalid votes||409,389||1.05%|
|Sources: Ministry of Interior of Iran|
Living former Presidents 
|Name||Picture||Term||Date of birth|
|Abulhassan Banisadr||1980–1981||) 22 March 1933|
|Ali Khamenei||1981–1989||) 17 July 1939|
|Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani||1989–1997||) 25 August 1934|
|Mohammad Khatami||1997–2005||) 29 September 1943|
See also 
- Term ends August 3rd, 2013
- Iran - Constitution Chapter IX, section 1 & 2 of the constitution
- Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Accessed 5-23-2008, (see also Article 110 of the constitution)
- "Assembly of Experts". Retrieved 15 August 2009.
- Bazzi, Mohamad (12 June 2009). "Iran Elections: Latest News". Washington Post. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- Constitution of Iran Article 115 - Qualifications
- "Iran To Hold Presidential Election In June 2009" (Reuters). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 7 September 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2008.
- "Ahmadinejad Wins Landslide". Iran Daily. 13 June 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "Ahmadinejad 'set for Iran victory'". Al Jazeera English. 13 June 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009. ""Doctor Ahmadinejad, by getting a majority of the votes, has become the definite winner of the 10th presidential election," the news agency said."
- Worth, Robert F.; Fathi, Nazila (13 June 2009). "Both Sides Claim Victory in Presidential Election in Iran". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 June 2009. "The election commission said early Saturday morning that, with 78 percent of the votes counted, Mr. Ahmadinejad had won 65 percent and Mr. Mousavi had 32 percent, Reuters reported."
- "Ahmadinejad wins Iran presidential election". BBC News. 13 June 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- Colin Freeman; David Blair (14 June 2009). "Defeated Iranian reformist Mir-Hossein Mousavi calls for more protest against Mahmoud Ahmadinejad". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- Gordon Brown comments on situation in Iran – Tuesday 16 June, British Embassy, Washington 16-06-2009
- "Official: Obama Administration Skeptical of Iran's Election Results". Fox News. 13 June 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "Ahmadinejad defiant on 'free' Iran poll". BBC News. 13 June 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- Freeman, Colin (12 June 2009). "Iran elections: revolt as crowds protest at Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's 'rigged' victory". Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 12 June 2009.
- "Instant View: Iran's election result staggers analysts". Reuters. 9 February 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "Election Battles Turn Into Street Fights in Iran". ABC News. 13 June 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "Crowds join Ahmadinejad victory rally". BBC News. 14 June 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- Ian Black; Vikram Dodd; Matthew Weaver (15 June 2009). "Iranians march in protest at Ahmadinejad re-election". Guardian (London). Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- Octavia Nasr; Reza Sayah; Samson Desta (16 June 2009). "Rival demonstrations fill Tehran streets". CNN. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
- "Ahmadinejad victory confirmed in Iran". BBC. 29 June 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- "Ahmadinejad sworn in as Iran president amid crisis". Associated Press. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
- "نتایج نهایی دهمین دورهٔ انتخابات ریاست جمهوری" (in Persian). Ministry of Interior of Iran. 2009-06-13. Retrieved 2009-06-27.