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In 1765, the first wave of colonization occurred as a result of the Great Upheaval when Acadians from Boston arrived and settled on the south bank of the Vacher Creek (French: ruisseau Vacher) in the Seignory of Saint-Sulpice. The settlement was called Bas-du-Ruisseau-Vacher (meaning "Lower Vacher Creek"), named after a certain Vacher who accompanied surveyor John Péladeau in 1767 on the seignory's territory. In 1790, the settlement grew when families from Château-Richer arrived. Actual clearing of the area began around 1820.
In 1888, the Parish Municipality of Sainte-Marie-Salomé was established by separating from Saint-Jacques-de-l'Achigan, and named after Mary Salome. Its letters patent used the misspelled "Salomée", which was not corrected until 1986. In 1889, the local post office opened. During th 1890s, the location was also known as Sainte-Marie-Salomé-de-Port-Royal, indicating the origin of its Acadian settlers.
Being in the fertile land of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, agriculture is the most important economic function of the municipality.
- Population in 2011: 1164 (2006 to 2011 population change: -7.3 %)
- Population in 2006: 1256
- Population in 2001: 1166
- Population in 1996: 1189
- Population in 1991: 1116
Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 474 (total dwellings: 508)
- English as first language: 0.8%
- French as first language: 97.6%
- English and French as first language: 0.8%
- Other as first language: 0.8%
- Reference number 183476 of the Commission de toponymie du Québec (French)
- Geographic code 63005 in the official Répertoire des municipalités (French)
- Statistics Canada 2011 Census - Sainte-Marie-Salomé census profile
- Official Transport Quebec Road Map
- "Sainte-Marie-Salomé (Municipalité de paroisse)" (in French). Commission de toponymie du Québec. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- "La municipalité de Sainte-Marie-Salomé" (in French). Centre local de développement Montcalm. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- Statistics Canada: 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011 census