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The regional unit stretches from the Thermaic Gulf to the Strymonic Gulf. The Thermaic Gulf lies to the southwest while the Strymonic Gulf is in the east. Two bodies of water are located to the north, Lake Koronia in the heart of the regional unit and Lake Volvi to the east. There are farmlands throughout the western and the southwestern part, a few in the northeast, the north and along the Axios River valley. The mountains include the Chortiatis to the westcentral part, the Vertiskos to the north and parts of the Kerdylio mountains to the northeast. The regional unit borders on the Imathia regional unit to the southwest, Pella to the west, Kilkis to the north, Serres to the east and Chalkidiki to the south.
Its climate includes hot Mediterranean summers and cool to mild winters in low lying areas and its plains. Winter weather is very common in areas 500 m above sea level and into the mountains.
The area of the Thessaloniki regional unit joined the rest of Greece in 1913, during the First Balkan War. The area was struck by an earthquake in the 1970s, and by flooding due to rainfall in October 2006.
The Thessaloniki regional unit is subdivided into 14 municipalities. These are (number as in the map in the infobox):
- Ampelokipoi-Menemeni (2)
- Chalkidona (13)
- Delta (4)
- Kalamaria (7)
- Kordelio-Evosmos (8)
- Lagkadas (9)
- Neapoli-Sykies (10)
- Oraiokastro (14)
- Pavlos Melas (11)
- Pylaia-Chortiatis (12)
- Thermaikos (5)
- Thermi (6)
- Thessaloniki (1)
- Volvi (3)
The Thessaloniki Prefecture (Greek: Νομός Θεσσαλονίκης) was created when the area joined with the rest of Greece during the First Balkan War in 1913. Its area was then the largest in the country covering about 7% of all of Greece. The prefectures of Pella and Kilkis were split off in 1930 and 1937 respectively, and after World War II in 1947, Imathia and Pieria.
As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the prefecture was transformed into a regional unit within the Central Macedonia region, without any change in boundaries. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below.
|New municipality||Old municipalities||Seat|
Note: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece.
Roads and highways 
The regional unit of Thessaloniki is connected with the following roads and highways.
- National Roads:
The GR-1 and GR-2 used to be the main road links connecting the regional unit of Thessaloniki with other parts of the country, up until the A1/E75 motorway (constructed during the 1970s) and the A2/E90 motorway (constructed during the 90's) were delivered to the public. Furthermore parts of the GR-67 (in the near future to form part of the A25) linking Chalkidiki and the GR-65 linking Kilkis, were converted into motorways during the 2000s.
Mass transit 
- Public transport services are provided by the Thessaloniki Urban Transport Organization
- Thessaloniki Metro (under construction, to be completed in late 2014)
Most of the stations are in the city (see Thessaloniki#Communications). Here are list of stations outside the city:
- Thermi TV - Thermi
Major Sport Clubs 
- Iraklis (founded in 1908)
- Aris (founded in 1914)
- PAOK (founded in 1926)
- Apollon Kalamarias (founded in 1926)
- Agrotikos Asteras (founded in 1932)