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|Lesser weever, Echiichthys vipera|
Weevers (or Weeverfish) are nine extant species of fish of family Trachinidae, order Perciformes. They are long (up to 37 cm), mainly brown and have poisonous spines on their first dorsal fin and gills. During the day, weevers bury themselves in sand, just showing their eyes, and snatch prey as it comes past, which consists of shrimps and small fish. Weevers are unusual in not having a swim bladder as do most bony fish and as a result sink as soon as they stop actively swimming. With the exception of T. cornutus from the south-east Pacific, all species in this family are restricted to the eastern Atlantic (including the Mediterranean). A tenth, extinct species, Callipterus speciosus, is known from the Monte Bolca lagerstatte of the Lutetian epoch.
Weevers are sometimes erroneously called 'weaver fish', although the word is unrelated. In fact, the word 'weever' is believed to derive from the Old French word 'wivre', meaning serpent or dragon, from the Latin 'vipera'. It is sometimes also known as the viperfish, although it is not related to the viperfish proper (i.e., the stomiids of the genus Chauliodus).
In Australia, sand perches of the family Mugiloididae are also known as weevers.
- Genus Echiichthys
- Genus Trachinus
- Spotted weever, Trachinus araneus Cuvier, 1829.
- Guinean weever, Trachinus armatus Bleeker, 1861.
- Sailfin weever, Trachinus collignoni Roux, 1957.
- Trachinus cornutus Guichenot, 1848.
- Greater weever, Trachinus draco Linnaeus, 1758.
- Striped weever, Trachinus lineolatus Fischer, 1885.
- Cape Verde weever, Trachinus pellegrini Cadenat, 1937.
- Starry weever, Trachinus radiatus Cuvier, 1829.
- Genus †Callipterys Agassiz 1835
Interaction with humans
Causes, frequency and prevention
Most human stings are inflicted by the lesser weever which habitually remains buried in sandy areas of shallow water and is thus more likely to come into contact with bathers than other species (such as the greater weever, which prefers deeper water), stings from other species are generally limited to anglers and commercial fishermen. Even very shallow water (sometimes little more than damp sand) may harbour lesser weevers. The vast majority of injuries occur to the foot and are the result of stepping on buried fish, other common sites of injury are the hands and buttocks.
Stings are most common in the hours before and after low tide (especially at springs) so one possible precaution is to avoid bathing or paddling at these times. They also increase in frequency during the summer (to a maximum in August) but this is probably the result of the greater number of bathers.
The lesser weever can be found from the southern North Sea to the Mediterranean and is common around the south coast of the United Kingdom and Ireland, the Atlantic coast of France, Portugal and Spain, and the northern coast of the Mediterranean. The high number of bathers found on popular tourist beaches in these areas means that stings are common although individual chances of being stung are low. The South Wales Evening Post stated (on 8 August 2000) that around 40 weever stings are recorded in the Swansea and Gower area every year however many victims will not seek medical assistance and go uncounted.
Weever stings have been known to penetrate wet suit boots even through a rubber sole (if thin) and it is recommended that bathers and surfers wear sandals, "jelly shoes" or wetsuit boots with a relatively hard sole and avoid sitting or "rolling" in the shallows.
At first many victims believe they have simply scratched themselves on a sharp stone or shell, although this barely hurts, significant pain begins about 2–3 minutes after being stung. Weever stings cause severe pain, common descriptions from victims are "extremely painful" and "much worse than a wasp (or bee) sting".
Common and minor symptoms include severe pain, itching, swelling, heat, redness, numbness, tingling, nausea, vomiting, joint aches, headaches, abdominal cramps, lightheadedness, increased urination and tremors.
Although extremely unpleasant, weever stings are not generally dangerous and the pain will ease considerably within a few hours even if untreated. Complete recovery may take a week or more; in a few cases victims have reported swelling and/or stiffness persisting for months after envenomation.
First Aid treatment consists of immersing the affected area in hot water (as hot as the victim can tolerate without being scalded) which will accelerate denaturation of the protein based venom. The use of hot water will reduce the pain felt by the victim after a few minutes. Usual experience is that the pain then fades within ten to twenty minutes, as the water cools. Folklore often suggests the addition of substances to the hot water including urine, vinegar and Epsom salts but this is of limited (if any) value. Heat should be applied for at least 15 minutes but, as a rule of thumb: the longer the delay (before heat is applied) the longer the treatment should be continued. Once the pain has eased the injury should be checked for the remains of broken spines and any found need to be removed. Over the counter analgesics such as aspirin or ibuprofen may be of assistance in management of pain and can also reduce edema (Caution see Aspirin Warnings).
Medical advice should be sought if any of the symptoms listed above as Rare/Severe are observed, if swelling spreads beyond the immediate area of injury (e.g. from hand to arm), if symptoms persist or if any other factor causes concern. Medical treatment consists of symptom management, analgesia (often with opiates) and the same heat treatment as for first aid - more systemic treatment using histamine antagonists may assist in reducing local inflammation.
The only recorded death in the UK occurred in 1927, when a fisherman off Dungeness suffered multiple stings. There is some suspicion that the victim may have died of other medical causes exacerbated by the stings.
Jonathan Wickings died after being stung by an unknown sea creature off the coast of Majorca in 1998. This was reported as a possible weever sting  although he was not in contact with the seabed and some witnesses reported seeing a snake in the water.
- Frickhinger, Karl Albert (March 1996). Fossil Atlas, Fishes. Tetra Print. p. 882. ISBN 978-1564651150 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Jean-Louis André, Cuisines des pays de France, Éditions du Chêne, 2001
- The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
- This is South Wales
- Branko Šuljić, Sportski ribolov, 2001
- Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine 1996;13:141-142
- Beware the Weever fish!
- "Mystery bite kills Briton". BBC News. 4 September 1998.