Abacavir (Page 5 of 8)

12.4 Microbiology

Abacavir is a carbocyclic synthetic nucleoside analogue. Abacavir is converted by cellular enzymes to the active metabolite, carbovir triphosphate (CBV-TP), an analogue of deoxyguanosine-5′-triphosphate (dGTP). CBV-TP inhibits the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) both by competing with the natural substrate dGTP and by its incorporation into viral DNA.

Antiviral Activity

The antiviral activity of abacavir against HIV-1 was assessed in a number of cell lines including primary monocytes/macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). EC50 values ranged from 3.7 to 5.8 microM (1 microM = 0.28 mcg per mL) and 0.07 to 1 microM against HIV-1IIIB and HIV-1BaL , respectively, and the mean EC50 value was 0.26 ± 0.18 microM against 8 clinical isolates. The median EC50 values of abacavir were 344 nM (range: 14.8 to 676 nM), 16.9 nM (range: 5.9 to 27.9 nM), 8.1 nM (range: 1.5 to 16.7 nM), 356 nM (range: 35.7 to 396 nM), 105 nM (range: 28.1 to 168 nM), 47.6 nM (range: 5.2 to 200 nM), 51.4 nM (range: 7.1 to 177 nM), and 282 nM (range: 22.4 to 598 nM) against HIV-1 clades A-G and group O viruses (n = 3 except n = 2 for clade B), respectively. The EC50 values against HIV-2 isolates (n = 4), ranged from 0.024 to 0.49 microM. The antiviral activity of abacavir in cell culture was not antagonized when combined with the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) didanosine, emtricitabine, lamivudine, stavudine, tenofovir, zalcitabine or zidovudine, the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) nevirapine, or the protease inhibitor (PI) amprenavir. Ribavirin (50 microM) used in the treatment of chronic HCV infection had no effect

on the anti-HIV-1 activity of abacavir in cell culture.

Resistance

HIV-1 isolates with reduced susceptibility to abacavir have been selected in cell culture. Genotypic analysis of isolates selected in cell culture and recovered from abacavir-treated subjects demonstrated that amino acid substitutions K65R, L74V, Y115F, and M184V/I emerged in HIV-1 RT. M184V or I substitutions resulted in an approximately 2-fold decrease in susceptibility to abacavir. Substitutions K65R, L74M, or Y115F with M184V or I conferred a 7- to 8-fold reduction in abacavir susceptibility, and combinations of three substitutions were required to confer more than an 8-fold reduction in susceptibility.

Thirty-nine percent (7 of 18) of the isolates from subjects who experienced virologic failure in the abacavir once-daily arm had a greater than 2.5-fold mean decrease in abacavir susceptibility with a median-fold decrease of 1.3 (range: 0.5 to 11) compared with 29% (5 of 17) of the failure isolates in the twice-daily arm with a median-fold decrease of 0.92 (range: 0.7 to 13).

Cross-Resistance

Cross-resistance has been observed among NRTIs. Isolates containing abacavir resistance-associated substitutions, namely, K65R, L74V, Y115F, and M184V, exhibited cross-resistance to didanosine, emtricitabine, lamivudine, and tenofovir in cell culture and in subjects. An increasing number of thymidine analogue mutation substitutions (TAMs: M41L, D67N, K70R, L210W, T215Y/F, K219E/R/H/Q/N) is associated with a progressive reduction in abacavir susceptibility.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenicity

Abacavir was administered orally at 3 dosage levels to separate groups of mice and rats in 2-year carcinogenicity studies. Results showed an increase in the incidence of malignant and non-malignant tumors. Malignant tumors occurred in the preputial gland of males and the clitoral gland of females of both species, and in the liver of female rats. In addition, non-malignant tumors also occurred in the liver and thyroid gland of female rats. These observations were made at systemic exposures in the range of 6 to 32 times the human exposure at the recommended dose of 600 mg.

Mutagenicity

Abacavir induced chromosomal aberrations both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation in an in vitro cytogenetic study in human lymphocytes. Abacavir was mutagenic in the absence of metabolic activation, although it was not mutagenic in the presence of metabolic activation in an L5178Y mouse lymphoma assay. Abacavir was clastogenic in males and not clastogenic in females in an in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.

Abacavir was not mutagenic in bacterial mutagenicity assays in the presence and absence of metabolic activation.

Impairment of Fertility

Abacavir did not affect male or female fertility in rats at a dose associated with exposures (AUC) approximately 3.3 times (male) or 4.1 times (female) those in humans at the clinically recommended dose.

13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology

Myocardial degeneration was found in mice and rats following administration of abacavir for 2 years. The systemic exposures were equivalent to 7 to 24 times the expected systemic exposure in humans at a dose of 600 mg. The clinical relevance of this finding has not been determined.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Adult Trials

Therapy-Naive Adults

CNA30024 was a multicenter, double-blind, controlled trial in which 649 HIV-1-infected, therapy-naive adults were randomized and received either abacavir (300 mg twice daily), lamivudine (150 mg twice daily), and efavirenz (600 mg once daily); or zidovudine (300 mg twice daily), lamivudine (150 mg twice daily), and efavirenz (600 mg once daily). The duration of double-blind treatment was at least 48 weeks. Trial participants were male (81%), white (51%), black (21%), and Hispanic (26%). The median age was 35 years; the median pretreatment CD4+ cell count was 264 cells per mm3 , and median plasma HIV-1 RNA was 4.79 log10 copies per mL. The outcomes of randomized treatment are provided in Table 7.

Table 7. Outcomes of Randomized Treatment through Week 48 (CNA30024)

Outcome Abacavir plus Lamivudine plus Efavirenz (n = 324) Zidovudine plus Lamivudine plus Efavirenz (n = 325)
Respondera Virologic failuresb Discontinued due to adverse reactionsDiscontinued due to other reasonsc 69% (73%)6%14%10% 69% (71%)4%16%11%

a Subjects achieved and maintained confirmed HIV-1 RNA less than or equal to 50 copies per mL (less than 400 copies per mL) through Week 48 (Roche AMPLICOR Ultrasensitive HIV-1 MONITOR standard test 1 PCR).

b Includes viral rebound, insufficient viral response according to the investigator, and failure to achieve confirmed less than or equal to 50 copies per mL by Week 48.

c Includes consent withdrawn, lost to follow up, protocol violations, those with missing data, clinical progression, and other.

After 48 weeks of therapy, the median CD4+ cell count increases from baseline were 209 cells per mm3 in the group receiving abacavir and 155 cells per mm3 in the zidovudine group. Through Week 48, 8 subjects (2%) in the group receiving abacavir (5 CDC classification C events and 3 deaths) and 5 subjects (2%) on the zidovudine arm (3 CDC classification C events and 2 deaths) experienced clinical disease progression.

CNA3005 was a multicenter, double-blind, controlled trial in which 562 HIV-1-infected, therapy-naive adults were randomized to receive either abacavir (300 mg twice daily) plus COMBIVIR (lamivudine 150 mg/zidovudine 300 mg twice daily), or indinavir (800 mg 3 times a day) plus COMBIVIR twice daily. The trial was stratified at randomization by pre-entry plasma HIV-1 RNA 10,000 to 100,000 copies per mL and plasma HIV-1 RNA greater than 100,000 copies per mL. Trial participants were male (87%), white (73%), black (15%), and Hispanic (9%). At baseline the median age was 36 years; the median baseline CD4+ cell count was 360 cells per mm3 , and median baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA was 4.8 log10 copies per mL. Proportions of subjects with plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 400 copies per mL (using Roche AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR Test) through 48 weeks of treatment are summarized in Table 8.

Table 8. Outcomes of Randomized Treatment through Week 48 (CNA3005)

Outcome Abacavir plus Lamivudine/ Zidovudine (n = 262) Indinavir plus Lamivudine/ Zidovudine (n = 265)
Respondera Virologic failureb Discontinued due to adverse reactions Discontinued due to other reasonsc 49%31%10%11% 50%28%12%10%

a Subjects achieved and maintained confirmed HIV-1 RNA less than 400 copies per mL.

b Includes viral rebound and failure to achieve confirmed less than 400 copies per mL by Week 48.

c Includes consent withdrawn, lost to follow up, protocol violations, those with missing data, clinical progression, and other.

Treatment response by plasma HIV-1 RNA strata is shown in Table 9.

Table 9. Proportions of Responders through Week 48 by Screening Plasma HIV-1 RNA Levels (CNA3005)

Screening HIV-1 RNA (copies/mL) Abacavir plus Lamivudine/ Zidovudine (n = 262) Indinavir plus Lamivudine/ Zidovudine (n = 265)
<400 copies/mL n <400 copies/mL n
≥10,000 to ≤100,000 >100,000 50%48% 16696 48%52% 165100

In subjects with baseline viral load greater than 100,000 copies per mL, percentages of subjects with HIV-1 RNA levels less than 50 copies per mL were 31% in the group receiving abacavir versus 45% in the group receiving indinavir.

Through Week 48, an overall mean increase in CD4+ cell count of about 150 cells per mm3 was observed in both treatment arms. Through Week 48, 9 subjects (3.4%) in the group receiving abacavir (6 CDC classification C events and 3 deaths) and 3 subjects (1.5%) in the group receiving indinavir (2 CDC classification C events and 1 death) experienced clinical disease progression.

CNA30021 was an international, multicenter, double-blind, controlled trial in which 770 HIV-1-infected, therapy-naive adults were randomized and received either abacavir 600 mg once daily or abacavir 300 mg twice daily, both in combination with lamivudine 300 mg once daily and efavirenz 600 mg once daily. The double-blind treatment duration was at least 48 weeks. Trial participants had a mean age of 37 years; were male (81%), white (54%), black (27%), and American Hispanic (15%). The median baseline CD4+ cell count was 262 cells per mm3 (range: 21 to 918 cells per mm3) and the median baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA was 4.89 log10 copies per mL (range: 2.6 to 6.99 log10 copies per mL).

The outcomes of randomized treatment are provided in Table 10.

Table 10. Outcomes of Randomized Treatment through Week 48 (CNA30021)

Outcome Abacavir 600 mg q.d. plus EPIVIR plus Efavirenz (n = 384) Abacavir 300 mg b.i.d. plus EPIVIR plus Efavirenz (n = 386)
Respondera Virologic failureb Discontinued due to adverse reactions Discontinued due to other reasonsc 64% (71%)11% (5%)13%11% 65% (72%)11% (5%)11%13%

a Subjects achieved and maintained confirmed HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL (less than 400 copies per mL) through Week 48 (Roche AMPLICOR Ultrasensitive HIV-1 MONITOR standard test version 1).

b Includes viral rebound, failure to achieve confirmed less than 50 copies per mL (less than 400 copies per mL) by Week 48, and insufficient viral load response.

c Includes consent withdrawn, lost to follow up, protocol violations, clinical progression, and other.

After 48 weeks of therapy, the median CD4+ cell count increases from baseline were 188 cells per mm3 in the group receiving abacavir 600 mg once daily and 200 cells per mm3 in the group receiving abacavir 300 mg twice daily. Through Week 48, 6 subjects (2%) in the group receiving abacavir 600 mg once daily (4 CDC classification C events and 2 deaths) and 10 subjects (3%) in the group receiving abacavir 300 mg twice daily (7 CDC classification C events and 3 deaths) experienced clinical disease progression. None of the deaths were attributed to trial medications.

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