ABILIFY (Page 8 of 24)
5.7 Orthostatic Hypotension
ABILIFY may cause orthostatic hypotension, perhaps due to its α1 -adrenergic receptor antagonism. The incidence of orthostatic hypotension-associated events from short-term, placebo-controlled trials of adult patients on oral ABILIFY (n=2467) included (ABILIFY incidence, placebo incidence) orthostatic hypotension (1%, 0.3%), postural dizziness (0.5%, 0.3%), and syncope (0.5%, 0.4%); of pediatric patients 6 to 18 years of age (n=732) on oral ABILIFY included orthostatic hypotension (0.5%, 0%), postural dizziness (0.4%, 0 %), and syncope (0.2%, 0%); and of patients on ABILIFY Injection (n=501) included orthostatic hypotension (0.6%, 0%), postural dizziness (0.2%, 0.5%), and syncope (0.4%, 0%). [see ADVERSE REACTIONS (6.1)]
The incidence of a significant orthostatic change in blood pressure (defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure ≥20 mmHg accompanied by an increase in heart rate ≥25 bpm when comparing standing to supine values) for ABILIFY was not meaningfully different from placebo (ABILIFY incidence, placebo incidence): in adult oral ABILIFY-treated patients (4%, 2%), in pediatric oral ABILIFY-treated patients aged 6 to 18 years (0.4%, 1%), or in ABILIFY injection-treated patients (3%, 2%).
ABILIFY should be used with caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction or ischemic heart disease, heart failure or conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular disease, or conditions which would predispose patients to hypotension (dehydration, hypovolemia, and treatment with antihypertensive medications) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS (7.1)].
If parenteral benzodiazepine therapy is deemed necessary in addition to ABILIFY injection treatment, patients should be monitored for excessive sedation and for orthostatic hypotension [see DRUG INTERACTIONS (7.1)].
5.8 Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis
In clinical trials and/or postmarketing experience, events of leukopenia and neutropenia have been reported temporally related to antipsychotic agents, including ABILIFY. Agranulocytosis has also been reported.
Possible risk factors for leukopenia/neutropenia include pre-existing low white blood cell count (WBC)/absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and history of drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia. In patients with a history of a clinically significant low WBC/ANC or drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia, perform a complete blood count (CBC) frequently during the first few months of therapy. In such patients, consider discontinuation of ABILIFY at the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors.
Monitor patients with clinically significant neutropenia for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treat promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Discontinue ABILIFY in patients with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <1000/mm3) and follow their WBC counts until recovery.
In short-term, placebo-controlled trials, patients with a history of seizures excluded seizures/convulsions occurred in 0.1% (3/2467) of undiagnosed adult patients treated with oral ABILIFY, in 0.1% (1/732) of pediatric patients (6 to 18 years), and in 0.2% (1/501) of adult ABILIFY injection-treated patients.
As with other antipsychotic drugs, ABILIFY should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that lower the seizure threshold. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in a population of 65 years or older.
5.10 Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment
ABILIFY, like other antipsychotics, may have the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. For example, in short-term, placebo-controlled trials, somnolence (including sedation) was reported as follows (ABILIFY incidence, placebo incidence): in adult patients (n=2467) treated with oral ABILIFY (11%, 6%), in pediatric patients ages 6 to 17 (n=611) (24%, 6%), and in adult patients (n=501) on ABILIFY Injection (9%, 6%). Somnolence (including sedation) led to discontinuation in 0.3% (8/2467) of adult patients and 3% (20/732) of pediatric patients (6 to 18 years) on oral ABILIFY in short-term, placebo-controlled trials, but did not lead to discontinuation of any adult patients on ABILIFY Injection.
Despite the relatively modest increased incidence of these events compared to placebo, patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that therapy with ABILIFY does not affect them adversely.
5.11 Body Temperature Regulation
Disruption of the body’s ability to reduce core body temperature has been attributed to antipsychotic agents. Appropriate care is advised when prescribing ABILIFY for patients who will be experiencing conditions which may contribute to an elevation in core body temperature, (e.g., exercising strenuously, exposure to extreme heat, receiving concomitant medication with anticholinergic activity, or being subject to dehydration) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS (6.2)].
The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in psychotic illnesses, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder, and close supervision of high-risk patients should accompany drug therapy. Prescriptions for ABILIFY should be written for the smallest quantity consistent with good patient management in order to reduce the risk of overdose [see ADVERSE REACTIONS (6.1, 6.2)].
Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic drug use, including ABILIFY. Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients, in particular those with advanced Alzheimer’s dementia. ABILIFY and other antipsychotic drugs should be used cautiously in patients at risk for aspiration pneumonia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.1) and ADVERSE REACTIONS (6.2)].
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The following adverse reactions are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis [see BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.1)]
- Cerebrovascular Adverse Events, Including Stroke [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.2)]
- Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults [see BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.3)]
- Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.4)]
- Tardive Dyskinesia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.5)]
- Metabolic Changes [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.6)]
- Orthostatic Hypotension [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.7)]
- Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.8)]
- Seizures/Convulsions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.9)]
- Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.10)]
- Body Temperature Regulation [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.11)]
- Suicide [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.12)]
- Dysphagia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.13)]
The most common adverse reactions in adult patients in clinical trials (≥10%) were nausea, vomiting, constipation, headache, dizziness, akathisia, anxiety, insomnia, and restlessness.
The most common adverse reactions in the pediatric clinical trials (≥10%) were somnolence, headache, vomiting, extrapyramidal disorder, fatigue, increased appetite, insomnia, nausea, nasopharyngitis, and weight increased.
ABILIFY has been evaluated for safety in 13,543 adult patients who participated in multiple-dose, clinical trials in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, Dementia of the Alzheimer’s type, Parkinson’s disease, and alcoholism, and who had approximately 7619 patient-years of exposure to oral ABILIFY and 749 patients with exposure to ABILIFY injection. A total of 3390 patients were treated with oral ABILIFY for at least 180 days and 1933 patients treated with oral ABILIFY had at least 1 year of exposure.
ABILIFY has been evaluated for safety in 1,686 patients (6 to 18 years) who participated in multiple-dose, clinical trials in schizophrenia, bipolar mania, autistic disorder, or Tourette’s disorder and who had approximately 1,342 patient-years of exposure to oral ABILIFY. A total of 959 pediatric patients were treated with oral ABILIFY for at least 180 days and 556 pediatric patients treated with oral ABILIFY had at least 1 year of exposure.
The conditions and duration of treatment with ABILIFY (monotherapy and adjunctive therapy with antidepressants or mood stabilizers) included (in overlapping categories) double-blind, comparative and noncomparative open-label studies, inpatient and outpatient studies, fixed- and flexible-dose studies, and short- and longer-term exposure.
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