Dosage adjustments are recommended in patients who are known CYP2D6 poor metabolizers and in patients taking concomitant CYP3A4 inhibitors or CYP2D6 inhibitors or strong CYP3A4 inducers (see Table 2). When the coadministered drug is withdrawn from the combination therapy, ABILIFY dosage should then be adjusted to its original level. When the coadministered CYP3A4 inducer is withdrawn, ABILIFY dosage should be reduced to the original level over 1 to 2 weeks. Patients who may be receiving a combination of strong, moderate, and weak inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 (e.g., a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor or a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor with a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor), the dosing may be reduced to one-quarter (25%) of the usual dose initially and then adjusted to achieve a favorable clinical response.
|Factors||Dosage Adjustments for ABILIFY|
|Known CYP2D6 Poor Metabolizers||Administer half of usual dose|
|Known CYP2D6 Poor Metabolizers taking concomitant strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., itraconazole, clarithromycin)||Administer a quarter of usual dose|
|Strong CYP2D6 (e.g., quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine) or CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., itraconazole, clarithromycin)||Administer half of usual dose|
|Strong CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors||Administer a quarter of usual dose|
|Strong CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., carbamazepine, rifampin)||Double usual dose over 1 to 2 weeks|
When adjunctive ABILIFY is administered to patients with major depressive disorder, ABILIFY should be administered without dosage adjustment as specified in Dosage and Administration (2.3).
The oral solution can be substituted for tablets on a mg-per-mg basis up to the 25 mg dose level. Patients receiving 30 mg tablets should receive 25 mg of the solution [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
ABILIFY® (aripiprazole) Tablets are available as described in Table 3.
|Tablet Strength||Tablet Color/Shape||Tablet Markings|
|2 mg||greenmodified rectangle||“A-006” and “2”|
|5 mg||bluemodified rectangle||“A-007” and “5”|
|10 mg||pinkmodified rectangle||“A-008” and “10”|
|15 mg||yellowround||“A-009” and “15”|
|20 mg||whiteround||“A-010” and “20”|
|30 mg||pinkround||“A-011” and “30”|
ABILIFY DISCMELT® (aripiprazole) Orally Disintegrating Tablets are available as described in Table 4.
|Tablet Strength||Tablet Color/Shape||Tablet Markings|
|10 mg||pink (with scattered specks)round||“A” and “640””10″|
|15 mg||yellow (with scattered specks)round||“A” and “641””15″|
ABILIFY® (aripiprazole) Oral Solution (1 mg/mL) is a clear, colorless to light-yellow solution, supplied in child-resistant bottles along with a calibrated oral dosing cup.
ABILIFY® (aripiprazole) Injection for Intramuscular Use is a clear, colorless solution available as a ready-to-use, 9.75 mg/1.3 mL (7.5 mg/mL) solution in clear, Type 1 glass vials.
ABILIFY is contraindicated in patients with a history of a hypersensitivity reaction to aripiprazole. Reactions have ranged from pruritus/urticaria to anaphylaxis [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. ABILIFY (aripiprazole) is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see Boxed Warning].
Safety Experience in Elderly Patients with Psychosis Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease
In three, 10-week, placebo-controlled studies of ABILIFY in elderly patients with psychosis associated with Alzheimer’s disease (n=938; mean age: 82.4 years; range: 56 to 99 years), the adverse reactions that were reported at an incidence of ≥3% and ABILIFY incidence at least twice that for placebo were lethargy [placebo 2%, ABILIFY 5%], somnolence (including sedation) [placebo 3%, ABILIFY 8%], and incontinence (primarily, urinary incontinence) [placebo 1%, ABILIFY 5%], excessive salivation [placebo 0%, ABILIFY 4%], and lightheadedness [placebo 1%, ABILIFY 4%].
The safety and efficacy of ABILIFY in the treatment of patients with psychosis associated with dementia have not been established. If the prescriber elects to treat such patients with ABILIFY, assess for the emergence of difficulty swallowing or excessive somnolence, which could predispose to accidental injury or aspiration [see Boxed Warning].
In placebo-controlled clinical studies (two flexible dose and one fixed dose study) of dementia-related psychosis, there was an increased incidence of cerebrovascular adverse events (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), including fatalities, in ABILIFY-treated patients (mean age: 84 years; range: 78 to 88 years). In the fixed-dose study, there was a statistically significant dose response relationship for cerebrovascular adverse events in patients treated with ABILIFY. ABILIFY is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see Boxed Warning].
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a long-standing concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. Pooled analyses of short-term, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18 to 24 years) with MDD and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24 years; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 years and older.
The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents with MDD, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term trials of 9 antidepressant drugs in over 4400 patients. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short-term trials (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger patients for almost all drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. The risk differences (drug vs. placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications. These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1000 patients treated) are provided in Table 5.
|Age Range||Drug-Placebo Difference in Number of Cases of Suicidality per 1000 Patients Treated|
|Increases Compared to Placebo|
|<18||14 additional cases|
|18 to 24||5 additional cases|
|Decreases Compared to Placebo|
|25 to 64||1 fewer case|
|≥65||6 fewer cases|
No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.
It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression.
All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases.
The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for MDD as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric. Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality.
Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient’s presenting symptoms.
Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to healthcare providers. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Prescriptions for ABILIFY should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose.
Screening Patients for Bipolar Disorder: A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of bipolar disorder. It is generally believed (though not established in controlled trials) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a mixed/manic episode in patients at risk for bipolar disorder. Whether any of the symptoms described above represent such a conversion is unknown. However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression.
It should be noted that ABILIFY is not approved for use in treating depression in the pediatric population.
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