Abiraterone Acetate (Page 2 of 11)

5.2 Adrenocortical Insufficiency

Adrenal insufficiency occurred in 0.3% of 2230 patients taking abiraterone acetate tablets and in 0.1% of 1763 patients taking placebo in the combined data of the 5 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies. Adrenocortical insufficiency was reported in patients receiving abiraterone acetate tablets in combination with prednisone, following interruption of daily steroids and/or with concurrent infection or stress.

Monitor patients for symptoms and signs of adrenocortical insufficiency, particularly if patients are withdrawn from prednisone, have prednisone dose reductions, or experience unusual stress. Symptoms and signs of adrenocortical insufficiency may be masked by adverse reactions associated with mineralocorticoid excess seen in patients treated with abiraterone acetate tablets. If clinically indicated, perform appropriate tests to confirm the diagnosis of adrenocortical insufficiency. Increased dosage of corticosteroids may be indicated before, during and after stressful situations [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] .

5.3 Hepatotoxicity

In postmarketing experience, there have been abiraterone acetate tablets-associated severe hepatic toxicity, including fulminant hepatitis, acute liver failure and deaths [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)] .

In the combined data of 5 randomized clinical trials, grade 3-4 ALT or AST increases (at least 5 x ULN) were reported in 6% of 2230 patients who received abiraterone acetate tablets, typically during the first 3 months after starting treatment. Patients whose baseline ALT or AST were elevated were more likely to experience liver test elevation than those beginning with normal values. Treatment discontinuation due to ALT and AST increases or abnormal hepatic function occurred in 1.1% of 2230 patients taking abiraterone acetate tablets. In these clinical trials, no deaths clearly related to abiraterone acetate tablets were reported due to hepatotoxicity events.

Measure serum transaminases (ALT and AST) and bilirubin levels prior to starting treatment with abiraterone acetate tablets, every two weeks for the first three months of treatment and monthly thereafter. In patients with baseline moderate hepatic impairment receiving a reduced abiraterone acetate tablets dose of 250 mg, measure ALT, AST, and bilirubin prior to the start of treatment, every week for the first month, every two weeks for the following two months of treatment and monthly thereafter. Promptly measure serum total bilirubin, AST, and ALT if clinical symptoms or signs suggestive of hepatotoxicity develop. Elevations of AST, ALT, or bilirubin from the patient’s baseline should prompt more frequent monitoring. If at any time AST or ALT rise above five times the ULN, or the bilirubin rises above three times the ULN, interrupt abiraterone acetate tablets treatment and closely monitor liver function.

Re-treatment with abiraterone acetate tablets at a reduced dose level may take place only after return of liver function tests to the patient’s baseline or to AST and ALT less than or equal to 2.5 x ULN and total bilirubin less than or equal to 1.5 x ULN [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].

Permanently discontinue abiraterone acetate tablets for patients who develop a concurrent elevation of ALT greater than 3 x ULN and total bilirubin greater than 2 x ULN in the absence of biliary obstruction or other causes responsible for the concurrent elevation [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].

The safety of abiraterone acetate tablets re-treatment of patients who develop AST or ALT greater than or equal to 20 x ULN and/or bilirubin greater than or equal to 10 x ULN is unknown.

5.4 Increased Fractures and Mortality in Combination with Radium Ra 223 Dichloride

Abiraterone acetate tablets plus prednisone/prednisolone are not recommended for use in combination with radium Ra 223 dichloride outside of clinical trials.

The clinical efficacy and safety of concurrent initiation of abiraterone acetate tablets plus prednisone/prednisolone and radium Ra 223 dichloride was assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter study (ERA-223 trial) in 806 patients with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases. The study was unblinded early based on an Independent Data Monitoring Committee recommendation.

At the primary analysis, increased incidences of fractures (28.6% vs 11.4%) and deaths (38.5% vs 35.5%) have been observed in patients who received abiraterone acetate tablets plus prednisone/prednisolone in combination with radium Ra 223 dichloride compared to patients who received placebo in combination with abiraterone acetate tablets plus prednisone/prednisolone.

5.5 Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

The safety and efficacy of abiraterone acetate tablets have not been established in females. Based on animal reproductive studies and mechanism of action, abiraterone acetate tablets can cause fetal harm and loss of pregnancy when administered to a pregnant female. In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of abiraterone acetate to pregnant rats during organogenesis caused adverse developmental effects at maternal exposures approximately ≥ 0.03 times the human exposure (AUC) at the recommended dose. Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with abiraterone acetate tablets and for 3 weeks after the last dose of abiraterone acetate tablets [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3)] . Abiraterone acetate tablets should not be handled by females who are or may become pregnant [see How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16)] .

5.6 Hypoglycemia

Severe hypoglycemia has been reported when abiraterone acetate tablets were administered to patients with pre-existing diabetes receiving medications containing thiazolidinediones (including pioglitazone) or repaglinide [see Drug Interactions (7.2)] . Monitor blood glucose in patients with diabetes during and after discontinuation of treatment with abiraterone acetate tablets. Assess if antidiabetic drug dosage needs to be adjusted to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia .

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:

6.1 Clinical Trial Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

Two randomized placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trials (COU-AA-301 and COU-AA¬302) enrolled patients who had metastatic CRPC in which abiraterone acetate tablets were administered orally at a dose of 1,000 mg daily in combination with prednisone 5 mg twice daily in the active treatment arms. Placebo plus prednisone 5 mg twice daily was given to patients on the control arm. A third randomized placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial (LATITUDE) enrolled patients who had metastatic high-risk CSPC in which abiraterone acetate tablets were administered at a dose of 1,000 mg daily in combination with prednisone 5 mg once daily. Placebos were administered to patients in the control arm. Additionally, two other randomized, placebo-controlled trials were conducted in patients with metastatic CRPC. The safety data pooled from 2230 patients in the 5 randomized controlled trials constitute the basis for the data presented in the Warnings and Precautions, Grade 1-4 adverse reactions, and Grade 1-4 laboratory abnormalities. In all trials, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog or prior orchiectomy was required in both arms.

In the pooled data, median treatment duration was 11 months (0.1, 43) for abiraterone acetate tablets-treated patients and 7.2 months (0.1, 43) for placebo-treated patients. The most common adverse reactions (≥ 10%) that occurred more commonly (> 2%) in the abiraterone acetate tablets arm were fatigue, arthralgia, hypertension, nausea, edema, hypokalemia, hot flush, diarrhea, vomiting, upper respiratory infection, cough, and headache. The most common laboratory abnormalities (> 20%) that occurred more commonly (≥ 2%) in the abiraterone acetate tablets arm were anemia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, hypertriglyceridemia, lymphopenia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, and hypokalemia. Grades 3-4 adverse events were reported for 53% of patients in the abiraterone acetate tablets arm and 46% of patients in the placebo arm. Treatment discontinuation was reported in 14% of patients in the abiraterone acetate tablets arm and 13% of patients in the placebo arm. The common adverse events (≥ 1%) resulting in discontinuation of abiraterone acetate tablets and prednisone were hepatotoxicity and cardiac disorders.

Deaths associated with treatment-emergent adverse events were reported for 7.5% of patients in the abiraterone acetate tablets arm and 6.6% of patients in the placebo arm. Of the patients in the abiraterone acetate tablets arm, the most common cause of death was disease progression (3.3%). Other reported causes of death in ≥ 5 patients included pneumonia, cardio-respiratory arrest, death (no additional information), and general physical health deterioration.

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