Abiraterone Acetate (Page 8 of 11)

Effect of Food

Systemic exposure of abiraterone is increased when abiraterone acetate is administered with food. In healthy subjects abiraterone C max and AUC 0-∞ were approximately 7- and 5-fold higher, respectively, when a single dose of abiraterone acetate was administered with a low-fat meal (7% fat, 300 calories) and approximately 17- and 10-fold higher, respectively, when a single dose of abiraterone acetate was administered with a high-fat (57% fat, 825 calories) meal compared to overnight fasting. Abiraterone AUC 0-∞ was approximately 7-fold or 1.6-fold higher, respectively, when a single dose of abiraterone acetate was administered 2 hours after or 1 hour before a medium fat meal (25% fat, 491 calories) compared to overnight fasting.

Systemic exposures of abiraterone in patients with metastatic CRPC, after repeated dosing of abiraterone acetate were similar when abiraterone acetate was taken with low-fat meals for 7 days and increased approximately 2-fold when taken with high-fat meals for 7 days compared to when taken at least 2 hours after a meal and at least 1 hour before a meal for 7 days.

Given the normal variation in the content and composition of meals, taking abiraterone acetate tablets with meals has the potential to result in increased and highly variable exposures.

Distribution

Abiraterone is highly bound (> 99%) to the human plasma proteins, albumin and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. The apparent steady-state volume of distribution (mean ± SD) is 19,669 ± 13,358 L.

Elimination

In patients with metastatic CRPC, the mean terminal half-life of abiraterone in plasma (mean ± SD) is 12 ± 5 hours.

Metabolism

Following oral administration of 14 C-abiraterone acetate as capsules, abiraterone acetate is hydrolyzed to abiraterone (active metabolite). The conversion is likely through esterase activity (the esterases have not been identified) and is not CYP mediated. The two main circulating metabolites of abiraterone in human plasma are abiraterone sulphate (inactive) and N-oxide abiraterone sulphate (inactive), which account for about 43% of exposure each. CYP3A4 and SULT2A1 are the enzymes involved in the formation of N-oxide abiraterone sulphate and SULT2A1 is involved in the formation of abiraterone sulphate.

Excretion

Following oral administration of 14 C-abiraterone acetate, approximately 88% of the radioactive dose is recovered in feces and approximately 5% in urine. The major compounds present in feces are unchanged abiraterone acetate and abiraterone (approximately 55% and 22% of the administered dose, respectively).

Specific Populations

Patients with Hepatic Impairment

The pharmacokinetics of abiraterone was examined in subjects with baseline mild (N = 8) or moderate (N = 8) hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A and B, respectively) and in 8 healthy control subjects with normal hepatic function. Systemic exposure to abiraterone after a single oral 1,000 mg dose given under fasting conditions increased approximately 1.1-fold and 3.6-fold in subjects with mild and moderate baseline hepatic impairment, respectively. The mean half-life of abiraterone is prolonged to approximately 18 hours in subjects with mild hepatic impairment and to approximately 19 hours in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment.

In another trial, the pharmacokinetics of abiraterone were examined in subjects with baseline severe (N = 8) hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) and in 8 healthy control subjects with normal hepatic function. The systemic exposure (AUC) of abiraterone increased by approximately 7-fold in subjects with severe baseline hepatic impairment compared to subjects with normal hepatic function. In addition, the mean protein binding was found to be lower in the severe hepatic impairment group compared to the normal hepatic function group, which resulted in a two-fold increase in the fraction of free drug in patients with severe hepatic impairment .

Patients with Renal Impairment

The pharmacokinetics of abiraterone were examined in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on a stable hemodialysis schedule (N = 8) and in matched control subjects with normal renal function (N = 8). In the ESRD cohort of the trial, a single 1,000 mg abiraterone acetate tablets dose was given under fasting conditions 1 hour after dialysis, and samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 96 hours post dose. Systemic exposure to abiraterone after a single oral 1,000 mg dose did not increase in subjects with end-stage renal disease on dialysis, compared to subjects with normal renal function .

Drug Interactions Studies

Clinical Studies

Effect of Other Drugs on Abiraterone Acetate Tablets

Strong CYP3A4 inducers: In a clinical pharmacokinetic interaction study of healthy subjects pretreated with a strong CYP3A4 inducer (rifampin, 600 mg daily for 6 days) followed by a single dose of abiraterone acetate 1,000 mg, the mean plasma AUC of abiraterone was decreased by 55%.

Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors: Co-administration of ketoconazole, a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4, had no clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of abiraterone.

Effect of Abiraterone Acetate Tablets on Other Drugs

CYP2D6 substrates: The C max and AUC of dextromethorphan (CYP2D6 substrate) were increased 2.8- and 2.9-fold, respectively when dextromethorphan 30 mg was given with abiraterone acetate 1,000 mg daily (plus prednisone 5 mg twice daily). The AUC for dextrorphan, the active metabolite of dextromethorphan, increased approximately 1.3 fold.

CYP1A2 substrates: When abiraterone acetate 1,000 mg daily (plus prednisone 5 mg twice daily) was given with a single dose of 100 mg theophylline (CYP1A2 substrate), no increase in systemic exposure of theophylline was observed.

CYP2C8 substrates: The AUC of pioglitazone (CYP2C8 substrate) was increased by 46% when pioglitazone was given to healthy subjects with a single dose of 1,000 mg abiraterone acetate.

In Vitro Studies

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Enzymes: Abiraterone is a substrate of CYP3A4 and has the potential to inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2C8 and to a lesser extent CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5.

Transporter Systems

In vitro studies show that at clinically relevant concentrations, abiraterone acetate and abiraterone are not substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and that abiraterone acetate is an inhibitor of P-gp. In vitro, abiraterone and its major metabolites were shown to inhibit the hepatic uptake transporter OATP1B1. There are no clinical data available to confirm transporter based interaction.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

A two-year carcinogenicity study was conducted in rats at oral abiraterone acetate doses of 5, 15, and 50 mg/kg/day for males and 15, 50, and 150 mg/kg/day for females. Abiraterone acetate increased the combined incidence of interstitial cell adenomas and carcinomas in the testes at all dose levels tested. This finding is considered to be related to the pharmacological activity of abiraterone. Rats are regarded as more sensitive than humans to developing interstitial cell tumors in the testes. Abiraterone acetate was not carcinogenic in female rats at exposure levels up to 0.8 times the human clinical exposure based on AUC. Abiraterone acetate was not carcinogenic in a 6-month study in the transgenic (Tg.rasH2) mouse.

Abiraterone acetate and abiraterone was not mutagenic in an in vitro microbial mutagenesis (Ames) assay or clastogenic in an in vitro cytogenetic assay using primary human lymphocytes or an in vivo rat micronucleus assay.

In repeat-dose toxicity studies in male rats (13- and 26-weeks) and monkeys (39-weeks), atrophy, aspermia/hypospermia, and hyperplasia in the reproductive system were observed at ≥ 50 mg/kg/day in rats and ≥ 250 mg/kg/day in monkeys and were consistent with the antiandrogenic pharmacological activity of abiraterone. These effects were observed in rats at systemic exposures similar to humans and in monkeys at exposures approximately 0.6 times the AUC in humans.

In a fertility study in male rats, reduced organ weights of the reproductive system, sperm counts, sperm motility, altered sperm morphology and decreased fertility were observed in animals dosed for 4 weeks at ≥ 30 mg/kg/day orally. Mating of untreated females with males that received 30 mg/kg/day oral abiraterone acetate resulted in a reduced number of corpora lutea, implantations and live embryos and an increased incidence of pre-implantation loss. Effects on male rats were reversible after 16 weeks from the last abiraterone acetate administration.

In a fertility study in female rats, animals dosed orally for 2 weeks until day 7 of pregnancy at ≥ 30 mg/kg/day had an increased incidence of irregular or extended estrous cycles and pre-implantation loss (300 mg/kg/day). There were no differences in mating, fertility, and litter parameters in female rats that received abiraterone acetate. Effects on female rats were reversible after 4 weeks from the last abiraterone acetate administration.

The dose of 30 mg/kg/day in rats is approximately 0.3 times the recommended dose of 1,000 mg/day based on body surface area.

In 13- and 26-week studies in rats and 13- and 39-week studies in monkeys, a reduction in circulating testosterone levels occurred with abiraterone acetate at approximately one half the human clinical exposure based on AUC. As a result, decreases in organ weights and toxicities were observed in the male and female reproductive system, adrenal glands, liver, pituitary (rats only), and male mammary glands. The changes in the reproductive organs are consistent with the antiandrogenic pharmacological activity of abiraterone acetate.

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