ACCUTANE- isotretinoin capsule, gelatin coated
JG Pharma Inc.
CAUSES BIRTH DEFECTS
DO NOT GET PREGNANT
CONTRAINDICATIONS AND WARNINGS
Accutane™ must not be used by patients who are or may become pregnant. There is an extremely high risk that severe birth defects will result if pregnancy occurs while taking Accutane in any amount, even for short periods of time. Potentially any fetus exposed during pregnancy can be affected. There are no accurate means of determining whether an exposed fetus has been affected.
Birth defects which have been documented following Accutane exposure include abnormalities of the face, eyes, ears, skull, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and thymus and parathyroid glands. Cases of IQ scores less than 85 with or without other abnormalities have been reported. There is an increased risk of spontaneous abortion, and premature births have been reported.
Documented external abnormalities include: skull abnormality; ear abnormalities (including anotia, micropinna, small or absent external auditory canals); eye abnormalities (including microphthalmia); facial dysmorphia; cleft palate. Documented internal abnormalities include: CNS abnormalities (including cerebral abnormalities, cerebellar malformation, hydrocephalus, microcephaly, cranial nerve deficit); cardiovascular abnormalities; thymus gland abnormality; parathyroid hormone deficiency. In some cases death has occurred with certain of the abnormalities previously noted.
If pregnancy does occur during treatment of a patient who is taking Accutane , Accutane must be discontinued immediately and the patient should be referred to an Obstetrician-Gynecologist experienced in reproductive toxicity for further evaluation and counseling.
Special Prescribing Requirements
Because of Accutane’s teratogenicity and to minimize fetal exposure, Accutane is approved for marketing only under a special restricted distribution program approved by the Food and Drug Administration. This program is called iPLEDGE ® . Accutane must only be prescribed by prescribers who are registered and activated with the iPLEDGE Program. Accutane must only be dispensed by a pharmacy registered and activated with iPLEDGE, and must only be dispensed to patients who are registered and meet all the requirements of iPLEDGE (see PRECAUTIONS).
Table 1 Monthly Required iPLEDGE Interactions
|||Patients Who Can Become Pregnant||Patients Who Cannot Become Pregnant|
|Confirms patient counseling||X||X|
|Enters the 2 contraception forms||X|
|chosen by the patient|
|Enters pregnancy test results||X|
|Answers educational questions before||X|
|Enters 2 forms of contraception||X|
|Contacts system to get an authorization||X||X|
Isotretinoin USP, a retinoid, is available as Accutane (isotretinoin capsules, USP) in 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg and 40 mg soft gelatin capsules for oral administration. Each capsule contains butylatedhydroxyanisole, edetate disodium, hydrogenated vegetable oil (Type-I and Type-II), medium chain triglyceride, refined soybean oil and white wax. Gelatin capsules contain ferric oxide red, ferricoxide yellow (for 30 mg), gelatin, glycerin, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, lake blend blue(LB-332) containing D&C Yellow No.10, FD&C Blue No.1 (for 10 mg), lake blend red (LB-1574) containingD&C Red No.27, D&C Red No.30 (for 20 mg), lake blend green (LB-333) containing D&C Yellow No.10, FD&C Blue No.1 (for 40 mg), lake blend white (TLB-1774) containing FD&C Blue No.2, titaniumdioxide, and opacode black S-1-17823 containing iron oxide black, N-butyl alcohol, propylene glycol, ammonium hydroxide and shellac.
Chemically, isotretinoin is 13-cis-retinoic acid and is related to both retinoic acid and retinol (vitamin A). It is a yellow to slightly orange crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 300.44. The structural formula is:
Meets USP Dissolution Test 5.
Isotretinoin is a retinoid, which when administered in pharmacologic dosages of 0.5 to 1 mg/kg/day (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION), inhibits sebaceous gland function and keratinization. The exact mechanism of action of isotretinoin is unknown.
Clinical improvement in nodular acne patients occurs in association with a reduction in sebum secretion. The decrease in sebum secretion is temporary and is related to the dose and duration of treatment with Accutane, and reflects a reduction in sebaceous gland size and an inhibition of sebaceous gland differentiation.1
Due to its high lipophilicity, oral absorption of isotretinoin is enhanced when given with a high-fat meal. In a crossover study, 74 healthy adult subjects received a single 80 mg oral dose (2 x 40 mg capsules) of Accutane under fasted and fed conditions. Both peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) and the total exposure (AUC) of isotretinoin were more than doubled following a standardized high-fat meal when compared with Accutane given under fasted conditions (see Table 2). The observed elimination half-life was unchanged. This lack of change in half-life suggests that food increases the bioavailability of isotretinoin without altering its disposition. The time to peak concentration (Tmax ) was also increased with food and may be related to a longer absorption phase. Therefore, Accutane should always be taken with food (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Clinical studies have shown that there is no difference in the pharmacokinetics of isotretinoin between patients with nodular acne and healthy subjects with normal skin.
Table 2 Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Isotretinoin Mean (%CV), N=74
| Accutane |
2 x 40 mg
|AUC 0-∞ |
| Cmax |
| T max |
|Fed*||10,004 (22%)||862 (22%)||5.3 (77%)||21 (39%)|
|Fasted||3,703 (46%)||301 (63%)||3.2 (56%)||21 (30%)|
*Eating a standardized high-fat meal
Isotretinoin is more than 99.9% bound to plasma proteins, primarily albumin.
Following oral administration of isotretinoin, at least three metabolites have been identified in human plasma: 4-oxo-isotretinoin, retinoic acid (tretinoin), and 4-oxo-retinoic acid (4-oxotretinoin). Retinoic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid are geometric isomers and show reversible interconversion. The administration of one isomer will give rise to the other. Isotretinoin is also irreversibly oxidized to 4-oxo -isotretinoin, which forms its geometric isomer 4-oxo -tretinoin.
After a single 80 mg oral dose of Accutane to 74 healthy adult subjects, concurrent administration of food increased the extent of formation of all metabolites in plasma when compared to the extent of formation under fasted conditions.
All of these metabolites possess retinoid activity that is in some in vitro models more than that of the parent isotretinoin. However, the clinical significance of these models is unknown. After multiple oral dose administration of isotretinoin to adult cystic acne patients (≥18 years), the exposure of patients to 4-oxo -isotretinoin at steady-state under fasted and fed conditions was approximately 3.4 times higher than that of isotretinoin.
In vitro studies indicate that the primary P450 isoforms involved in isotretinoin metabolism are 2C8, 2C9, 3A4, and 2B6. Isotretinoin and its metabolites are further metabolized into conjugates, which are then excreted in urine and feces.
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