Activella (Page 2 of 10)
2.2 Treatment of Moderate to Severe Symptoms of Vulvar and Vaginal Atrophy due to Menopause
Take a single Activella tablet orally once daily for the treatment of moderate to severe symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy due to menopause.
- Activella 1 mg/0.5 mg
2.3 Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
Take a single Activella tablet orally once daily for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
- Activella 1 mg/0.5 mg
- Activella 0.5 mg/0.1 mg
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Activella is available in two strengths:
- Activella 1 mg/ 0.5 mg contains 1 mg of estradiol and 0.5 mg of norethindrone acetate. The tablets are white, round, biconvex, film-coated tablets debossed with “ALH” on the one side and plain on the other side.
- Activella 0.5 mg/ 0.1 mg contains 0.5 mg of estradiol and 0.1 mg of norethindrone acetate. The tablets are white, round, biconvex, film-coated tablets debossed with “ALL” on the one side and plain on the other side.
Activella is contraindicated in women with any of the following conditions:
- Undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Breast cancer or history of breast cancer [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Estrogen-dependent neoplasia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Active DVT, PE, or history of these conditions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Active arterial thromboembolic disease (for example, stroke and MI), or a history of these conditions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Known anaphylactic reaction, angioedema, or hypersensitivity to Activella
- Hepatic impairment or disease
- Protein C, protein S, or antithrombin deficiency, or other known thrombophilic disorders
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Cardiovascular Disorders
Increased risks of PE, DVT, stroke and MI are reported with estrogen plus progestin therapy. Increased risks of stroke and DVT are reported with estrogen-alone therapy. Immediately discontinue estrogen with or without progestogen therapy if any of these occur or is suspected.
Manage appropriately any risk factors for arterial vascular disease (for example, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity) and/or venous thromboembolism (VTE) (for example, personal history or family history of VTE, obesity, and systemic lupus erythematosus).
The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy reported a statistically significant increased risk of stroke in women 50 to 79 years of age receiving daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women in the same age group receiving placebo (33 versus 25 strokes per 10,000 women-years) [see Clinical Studies (14.5)]. The increase in risk was demonstrated after the first year and persisted.1 Immediately discontinue estrogen with or without progestogen therapy if a stroke occurs or is suspected.
The WHI estrogen-alone substudy reported a statistically significant increased risk of stroke in women 50 to 79 years of age receiving daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone compared to women in the same age group receiving placebo (45 versus 33 strokes per 10,000 women-years, respectively). The increase in risk was demonstrated in year 1 and persisted [see Clinical Studies (14.5)]. Immediately discontinue estrogen-alone therapy if a stroke occurs or is suspected.
Subgroup analyses of women 50 to 59 years of age suggest no increased risk of stroke for those women receiving CE (0.625 mg)-alone versus those receiving placebo (18 versus 21 per 10,000 women-years).1
Coronary Heart Disease
The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy reported an increased risk (not statistically significant) of coronary heart disease (CHD) events (defined as nonfatal MI, silent MI, or CHD death) in those women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women receiving placebo (41 versus 34 per 10,000 women-years).1 An increase in relative risk was demonstrated in year 1, and a trend toward decreasing relative risk was reported in years 2 through 5 [see Clinical Studies (14.5)].
The WHI estrogen-alone substudy reported no overall effect on CHD events in women receiving estrogen-alone compared to placebo 2 [see Clinical Studies (14.5)].
Subgroup analyses of women 50 to 59 years of age, who were less than 10 years since menopause, suggest a reduction (not statistically significant) in CHD events in those women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone compared to placebo (8 versus 16 per 10,000 women-years).1
In postmenopausal women with documented heart disease (n=2,763), average 66.7 years of age, in a controlled clinical trial of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study; HERS), treatment with daily CE (0.625 mg plus MPA (2.5 mg) demonstrated no cardiovascular benefit. During an average follow-up of 4.1 years, treatment with CE plus MPA did not reduce the overall rate of CHD events in postmenopausal women with established CHD. There were more CHD events in the CE plus MPA-treated group than in the placebo group in year 1, but not during the subsequent years. Two thousand three hundred twenty-one (2,321) women from the original HERS trial agreed to participate in an open label extension of HERS, HERS II. Average follow-up in HERS II was an additional 2.7 years, for a total of 6.8 years overall. Rates of CHD events were comparable among women in the CE plus MPA group and the placebo group in HERS, HERS II, and overall.
The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy reported a statistically significant 2-fold greater rate of VTE (DVT and PE) in women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women receiving placebo (35 versus 17 per 10,000 women-years). Statistically significant increases in risk for both DVT (26 versus 13 per 10,000 women-years) and PE (18 versus 8 per 10,000 women-years) were also demonstrated. The increase in VTE risk was demonstrated during the first year and persisted 3 [see Clinical Studies (14.5)]. Immediately discontinue estrogen plus progestogen therapy if a VTE occurs or is suspected.
In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, the risk of VTE was increased for women receiving daily CE
(0.625 mg)-alone compared to placebo (30 versus 22 per 10,000 women-years), although only the increased risk of DVT reached statistical significance (23 versus 15 per 10,000 women-years). The increase in VTE risk was demonstrated during the first 2 years 4 [see Clinical Studies (14.5)]. Immediately discontinue estrogen-alone therapy if a VTE occurs or is suspected.
If feasible, discontinue estrogens at least 4 to 6 weeks before surgery of the type associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism, or during periods of prolonged immobilization.
5.2 Malignant Neoplasms
After a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, the WHI substudy of daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) reported an increased risk of invasive breast cancer in women who took daily CE plus MPA compared to placebo.
In this substudy, prior use of estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin therapy was reported by 26 percent of the women. The relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.24, and the absolute risk was 41 versus 33 cases per 10,000 women-years, for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. Among women who reported prior use of hormone therapy, the relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.86, and the absolute risk was 46 versus 25 cases per 10,000 women-years, for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. Among women who reported no prior use of hormone therapy, the relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.09, and the absolute risk was 40 versus 36 cases per 10,000 women-years, for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. In the same substudy, invasive breast cancers were larger, were more likely to be node positive, and were diagnosed at a more advanced stage in the CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) group compared with the placebo group. Metastatic disease was rare, with no apparent difference between the two groups. Other prognostic factors, such as histologic subtype, grade and hormone receptor status did not differ between the groups 5 [see Clinical Studies (14.5)].
The WHI substudy of daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone provided information about breast cancer in estrogen-alone users. In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, after an average follow‑up of 7.1 years, daily CE-alone was not associated with an increased risk of invasive breast cancer [relative risk (RR) 0.80] compared to placebo 6 [see Clinical Studies (14.5)].
Consistent with the WHI clinical trials, observational studies have also reported an increased risk of breast cancer with estrogen plus progestin therapy, and a smaller increase in the risk for breast cancer with estrogen-alone therapy, after several years of use. The risk increased with duration of use, and appeared to return to baseline over about 5 years after stopping treatment (only the observational studies have substantial data on risk after stopping). Observational studies also suggest that the risk of breast cancer was greater, and became apparent earlier, with estrogen plus progestin therapy as compared to estrogen-alone therapy. These studies have not generally found significant variation in the risk of breast cancer among different estrogen plus progestin combinations, doses, or routes of administration.
The use of estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin therapy has been reported to result in an increase in abnormal mammograms requiring further evaluation.
In a one-year trial among 1,176 women who received either unopposed 1 mg estradiol or a combination of 1 mg estradiol plus one of three different doses of NETA (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 mg), seven new cases of breast cancer were diagnosed, two of which occurred among the group of 295 women treated with Activella 1 mg/0.5 mg and two of which occurred among the group of 294 women treated with 1 mg estradiol/0.1 mg NETA.
All women should receive yearly breast examinations by a healthcare provider and perform monthly breast self-examinations. In addition, mammography examinations should be scheduled based on patient age, risk factors, and prior mammogram results.
An increased risk of endometrial cancer has been reported with the use of unopposed estrogen therapy in a woman with a uterus. The reported endometrial cancer risk among unopposed estrogen users is about 2- to 12-fold greater than in nonusers, and appears dependent on duration of treatment and on estrogen dose. Most studies show no significant increased risk associated with use of estrogens for less than 1 year. The greatest risk appears to be associated with prolonged use, with increased risks of 15- to 24‑fold for 5 to 10 years or more. This risk has been shown to persist for at least 8 to 15 years after estrogen therapy is discontinued.
Clinical surveillance of all women using estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestogen therapy is important. Perform adequate diagnostic measures, including directed or random endometrial sampling when indicated, to rule out malignancy in postmenopausal women with undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal genital bleeding with unknown etiology.
There is no evidence that the use of natural estrogens results in a different endometrial risk profile than synthetic estrogens of equivalent estrogen dose. Adding a progestogen to estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, which may be a precursor to endometrial cancer.
Endometrial hyperplasia occured at a rate of approximately 1 percent or less with Activella in a clinical trial.
The CE plus MPA substudy of WHI reported that estrogen plus progestin increased the risk of ovarian cancer. After an average follow-up of 5.6 years, the relative risk for ovarian cancer for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 1.58 (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.77-3.24), but it was not statistically significant. The absolute risk for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 4 versus 3 cases per 10,000 women-years.7
A meta-analysis of 17 prospective and 35 retrospective epidemiology studies found that women who used hormonal therapy for menopausal symptoms had an increased risk for ovarian cancer. The primary analysis, using case-control comparisons, included 12,110 cancer cases from the 17 prospective studies. The relative risks associated with current use of hormonal therapy was 1.41 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.50); there was no difference in the risk estimates by duration of the exposure (less than 5 years [median of 3 years] vs. greater than 5 years [median of 10 years] of use before the cancer diagnosis). The relative risk associated with combined current and recent use (discontinued use within 5 years before cancer diagnosis) was 1.37 (95% CI 1.27-1.48), and the elevated risk was significant for both estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin products. The exact duration of hormone therapy use associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer, however, is unknown.
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