ACZONE 7.5- dapsone gel
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
ACZONE ® (dapsone) Gel, 7.5%, is indicated for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients 12 years of age and older.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
For topical use only. Not for oral, ophthalmic, or intravaginal use.
After the skin is gently washed and patted dry, apply approximately a pea-sized amount of ACZONE Gel, 7.5%, in a thin layer to the entire face once daily. In addition, a thin layer may be applied to other affected areas once daily. Rub in ACZONE Gel, 7.5%, gently and completely.
If there is no improvement after 12 weeks, treatment with ACZONE Gel, 7.5% should be reassessed (2).
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Gel, 7.5%. Each gram of ACZONE Gel, 7.5% contains 75 mg of dapsone in an off-white to yellow gel with suspended particles.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Hematological Effects
Cases of methemoglobinemia, with resultant hospitalization, have been reported postmarketing in association with twice daily dapsone gel, 5%, treatment. Patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency or congenital or idiopathic methemoglobinemia are more susceptible to drug-induced methemoglobinemia. Avoid use of ACZONE Gel, 7.5% in those patients with congenital or idiopathic methemoglobinemia.
Signs and symptoms of methemoglobinemia may be delayed some hours after exposure. Initial signs and symptoms of methemoglobinemia are characterized by a slate grey cyanosis seen in e.g., buccal mucous membranes, lips, and nail beds. Advise patients to discontinue ACZONE Gel, 7.5% and seek immediate medical attention in the event of cyanosis.
Dapsone can cause elevated methemoglobin levels particularly in conjunction with methemoglobin-inducing agents [see Drug Interactions ( 7.4)].
Oral dapsone treatment has produced dose-related hemolysis and hemolytic anemia. Individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are more prone to hemolysis with the use of certain drugs. G6PD deficiency is most prevalent in populations of African, South Asian, Middle Eastern, and Mediterranean ancestry.
In clinical trials, there was no evidence of clinically relevant hemolysis or hemolytic anemia in subjects treated with topical dapsone. Some subjects with G6PD deficiency using dapsone gel, 5 %, twice daily developed laboratory changes suggestive of hemolysis [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.6)] .
Discontinue ACZONE Gel, 7.5%, if signs and symptoms suggestive of hemolytic anemia occur. Avoid use of ACZONE Gel, 7.5% in patients who are taking oral dapsone or antimalarial medications because of the potential for hemolytic reactions. Combination of ACZONE Gel, 7.5%, with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) may increase the likelihood of hemolysis in patients with G6PD deficiency [see Drug Interactions ( 7.1)].
5.2 Peripheral Neuropathy
Peripheral neuropathy (motor loss and muscle weakness) has been reported with oral dapsone treatment. No events of peripheral neuropathy were observed in clinical trials with topical dapsone treatment.
5.3 Skin Reactions
Skin reactions (toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, morbilliform and scarlatiniform reactions, bullous and exfoliative dermatitis, erythema nodosum, and urticaria) have been reported with oral dapsone treatment. These types of skin reactions were not observed in clinical trials with topical dapsone treatment.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
6.1 Clinical Studies Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
A total of 2161 subjects were treated with ACZONE Gel, 7.5%, for 12 weeks in 2 controlled clinical trials. The population ranged in age from 12 to 63 years, was 56% female, and 58% Caucasian. Adverse drug reactions that were reported in at least 0.9% of subjects treated with ACZONE Gel, 7.5% appear in Table 1 below.
Table 1 . Adverse Reactions O ccurring in at L east 0.9 % of Subjects with Acne Vulgaris in 12-week Controlled Clinical Trials
|ACZONE Gel, 7.5% (N=2161)||Vehicle (N=2175)|
|Application Site Dryness||24 (1.1%)||21 (1.0%)|
|Application Site Pruritus||20 (0.9%)||11 (0.5%)|
6.2 Experience with Oral Use of Dapsone
Although not observed in the clinical trials with topical dapsone, serious adverse reactions have been reported with oral use of dapsone, including agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, peripheral neuropathy (motor loss and muscle weakness), and skin reactions (toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, morbilliform and scarlatiniform reactions, bullous and exfoliative dermatitis, erythema nodosum, and urticaria).
6. 3 Postmarketing Experience
Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of topical dapsone:
methemoglobinemia, rash (including erythematous rash, application site rash) and swelling of face (including lip swelling, eye swelling).
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
No formal drug-drug interaction studies were conducted with ACZONE Gel, 7.5%.
7.1 Trimethoprim-Sulf a methoxazole
A drug-drug interaction study evaluated the effect of the use of dapsone gel, 5% in combination with double strength (160 mg/800 mg) trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX). During co-administration, systemic levels of TMP and SMX were essentially unchanged, however, levels of dapsone and its metabolites increased in the presence of TMP/SMX. The systemic exposure from ACZONE Gel, 7.5% is expected to be about 1% of that from the 100 mg oral dose, even when co-administered with TMP/SMX.
7.2 Topical Benzoyl Peroxide
Topical application of dapsone gel followed by benzoyl peroxide in patients with acne vulgaris may result in a temporary local yellow or orange discoloration of the skin and facial hair.
7.3 Drug Interactions with Oral Dapsone
Certain concomitant medications (such as rifampin, anticonvulsants, St. John’s wort) may increase the formation of dapsone hydroxylamine, a metabolite of dapsone associated with hemolysis. With oral dapsone treatment, folic acid antagonists such as pyrimethamine have been noted to possibly increase the likelihood of hematologic reactions.
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