As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies in the studies described below with the incidence of antibodies in other studies or to other crizanlizumab products may be misleading.
The immunogenicity of ADAKVEO was evaluated using a validated bridging immunoassay for the detection of binding anti-crizanlizumab-tmca antibodies. In a single arm, open label multiple dose study, 0 of the 45 patients with sickle cell disease treated with ADAKVEO 5 mg/kg tested positive for treatment-induced anti-crizanlizumab-tmca antibodies. In a single-dose study of healthy subjects, 1 of the 61 (1.6%) evaluable subjects tested positive for a treatment-induced anti-crizanlizumab-tmca antibodies.
ADAKVEO interferes with automated platelet counts (platelet clumping) in particular when blood samples are collected in tubes containing EDTA, which may lead to unevaluable or falsely decreased platelet counts. Run blood samples within 4 hours of blood collection or collect blood samples in tubes containing citrate. When needed, estimate platelet count via peripheral blood smear.
Based on data from animal studies, ADAKVEO has the potential to cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. In an animal reproduction study, intravenous administration of crizanlizumab-tmca to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys from the onset of organogenesis through delivery resulted in a non-dose related increased fetal loss (abortions/stillbirths) at doses approximately 2.8 times the exposure at the recommended clinical dose at 5 mg/kg/dose once every 4 weeks (see Data).
There are insufficient human data on ADAKVEO use in pregnant women to evaluate for a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. ADAKVEO should only be used during pregnancy if the expected benefit to the patient justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is approximately 14% and up to 43%, respectively. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes.
Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk
Women with sickle cell disease have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for the mother and the fetus. Pregnant women are at greater risk for VOCs, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and maternal mortality. For the fetus, there is an increased risk for intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, low birth weight, and perinatal mortality.
In an enhanced pre- and postnatal development study in cynomolgus monkeys, pregnant animals received intravenous doses of crizanlizumab-tmca at 10 and 50 mg/kg once every 2 weeks during the period of onset of organogenesis through delivery. No maternal toxicity was observed. Maternal exposures at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg were between 2.8 and 16 times, respectively, the human clinical exposure based on area under the curve (AUC) in patients with sickle cell disease at 5 mg/kg/dose once every 4 weeks. There was an increase in fetal loss (abortions or still births) at both crizanlizumab-tmca doses which was higher in the third trimester.
There were no effects on infant growth and development through 6-months postpartum that were attributable to crizanlizumab-tmca.
Measurable crizanlizumab-tmca serum concentrations were observed in the infant monkeys at postnatal Day 28, confirming that crizanlizumab crosses the placental barrier.
There is no data on the presence of crizanlizumab-tmca in human or animal milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. Maternal IgG is known to be present in human milk. The effects of local gastrointestinal exposure and limited systemic exposure in the breastfed child to crizanlizumab-tmca are unknown.
The developmental and health benefits of breast-feeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for ADAKVEO and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from ADAKVEO or from the underlying maternal condition.
The safety and effectiveness of ADAKVEO for sickle cell disease have been established in pediatric patients aged 16 years and older. Use of ADAKVEO for sickle cell disease is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies in adults and pediatric patients (SUSTAIN Trial). The SUSTAIN trial enrolled one pediatric patient treated with ADAKVEO 5 mg/kg aged 16 years old [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Clinical Studies (14)].
The safety and efficacy of ADAKVEO in pediatric patients below the age of 16 years have not been established.
Clinical studies of ADAKVEO did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.
Crizanlizumab-tmca is a selectin blocker humanized IgG2 kappa monoclonal antibody that binds to P-selectin. Crizanlizumab-tmca is produced using recombinant DNA technology in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. It is composed of 2 heavy chains, each containing 448 amino acids, and 2 light chains each containing 218 amino acids, with a theoretical molecular weight of approximately 146 kDa.
ADAKVEO (crizanlizumab-tmca) injection is supplied as a sterile, preservative-free, clear to opalescent, colorless to slightly brownish-yellow solution for dilution and subsequent administration by intravenous infusion. Each 10 mL vial contains 100 mg crizanlizumab-tmca, citric acid (5.4 mg), polysorbate 80 (2 mg), sodium citrate (50.5 mg), sucrose (753.3 mg) and water for injection with a pH of 6.
Crizanlizumab-tmca is a humanized IgG2 kappa monoclonal antibody that binds to P-selectin and blocks interactions with its ligands including P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1.
Binding P-selectin on the surface of the activated endothelium and platelets blocks interactions between endothelial cells, platelets, red blood cells, and leukocytes.
ADAKVEO resulted in a dose-dependent P-selectin inhibition (measured ex vivo) in patients with sickle cell disease and healthy volunteers.
The pharmacokinetics of crizanlizumab-tmca were evaluated in healthy volunteers and patients with sickle cell disease. The mean crizanlizumab-tmca Cmax , AUClast , or AUCinf increased disproportionally over the dose range of 0.2 to 8 mg/kg (0.04 to 1.6 times the approved recommended dosage) in healthy volunteers. In healthy volunteers administered the 5 mg/kg dose, the mean [coefficient of variation (CV%)] crizanlizumab-tmca Cmax , AUClast , or AUCinf were 0.16 (15.3%) mg/mL, 33.6 (12.6%) mg*hr/mL and 34.6 (13.1%) mg*hr/mL, respectively.
The mean (% CV) volume of distribution was 4.26 (25.1%) L after a single crizanlizumab-tmca 5 mg/kg intravenous infusion in healthy volunteers.
The mean (% CV) terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 ) of crizanlizumab-tmca was 10.6 (20.5%) days and the mean clearance was 11.7 (16.2%) mL/hr at 5 mg/kg doses in healthy volunteers. The mean (% CV) elimination t1/2 of crizanlizumab-tmca was 7.6 (28.5%) days during dosing interval in patients with sickle cell disease.
Crizanlizumab-tmca is expected to be metabolized into small peptides by catabolic pathways.
The effect of renal or hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of crizanlizumab-tmca is unknown.
Drug Interaction Studies
Hydroxyurea had no clinically meaningful effect on crizanlizumab-tmca pharmacokinetics in patients in clinical studies.
No carcinogenicity or genotoxicity studies have been conducted with crizanlizumab-tmca.
In the 26-week repeat-dose toxicity study, cynomolgus monkeys were administered crizanlizumab-tmca once every 4 weeks at doses up to 50 mg/kg (at least 13.5 times the human clinical exposure based on AUC in patients with sickle cell disease at 5 mg/kg once every 4 weeks). There were no adverse effects of crizanlizumab-tmca on male or female reproductive organs.
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