Because of the risk of bronchospasm, ADASUVE is available only through a restricted program under a REMS called the ADASUVE REMS. [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Required components of the ADASUVE REMS are:
- Healthcare facilities that dispense and administer ADASUVE must be enrolled and comply with the REMS requirements. Certified healthcare facilities must have on-site access to equipment and personnel trained to provide advance airway management, including intubation and mechanical ventilation.
- Wholesalers and distributors that distribute ADASUVE must enroll in the program and distribute only to enrolled healthcare facilities.
Further information is available at www.adasuverems.com or 888-970-7367.
Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at increased risk of death. Analyses of 17 placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the cases of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies can be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. ADASUVE is not approved for the treatment of elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis [see Boxed Warning].
Antipsychotic drugs can cause a potentially fatal symptom complex termed Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS). Clinical manifestations of NMS include hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Associated features can include elevated serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) concentration, rhabdomyolysis, elevated serum and urine myoglobin concentration, and renal failure. NMS did not occur in the ADASUVE clinical program.
The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. It is important to consider the presence of other serious medical conditions (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, heat stroke, primary CNS pathology, central anticholinergic toxicity, extrapyramidal symptoms, or drug fever).
The management of NMS should include: 1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs that may contribute to the underlying disorder, 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring, and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for NMS.
If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. The patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported.
ADASUVE can cause hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, and syncope. Use ADASUVE with caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction or ischemic heart disease, heart failure or conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular disease, or conditions that would predispose patients to hypotension (dehydration, hypovolemia, or treatment with antihypertensive medications or other drugs that affect blood pressure or reduce heart rate).
In the presence of severe hypotension requiring vasopressor therapy, the preferred drugs may be norepinephrine or phenylephrine. Epinephrine should not be used, because beta stimulation may worsen hypotension in the setting of ADASUVE-induced partial alpha blockade.
In short-term (24-hour) placebo-controlled trials of patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder, hypotension occurred in 0.4% and 0.8% in the ADASUVE 10 mg and placebo groups, respectively. There were no cases of orthostatic hypotension, postural symptoms, presyncope or syncope. A systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mm Hg with a decrease of ≥ 20 mm Hg occurred in 1.5% and 0.8% of the ADASUVE 10 mg and placebo groups, respectively. A diastolic blood pressure ≤ 50 mm Hg with a decrease of ≥15 mm Hg occurred in 0.8% and 0.4% of the ADASUVE 10 mg and placebo groups, respectively.
In 5 Phase 1 studies in normal volunteers, the incidence of hypotension was 3% and 0% in ADASUVE 10 mg and the placebo groups, respectively. The incidence of syncope or presyncope in normal volunteers was 2.3% and 0% in the ADASUVE and placebo groups, respectively. In normal volunteers, a systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mm Hg with a decrease of ≥ 20 mm Hg occurred in 5.3% and 1.1% in the ADASUVE and placebo groups, respectively. A diastolic blood pressure ≤ 50 mm Hg with a decrease of ≥ 15 mm Hg occurred in 7.5% and 3.3% in the ADASUVE and placebo groups, respectively.
ADASUVE lowers the seizure threshold. Seizures have occurred in patients treated with oral loxapine. Seizures can occur in epileptic patients even during antiepileptic drug maintenance therapy. In short term (24 hour), placebo-controlled trials of ADASUVE, there were no reports of seizures.
ADASUVE can impair judgment, thinking, and motor skills. In short-term, placebo-controlled trials, sedation and/or somnolence were reported in 12% and 10% in the ADASUVE and placebo groups, respectively. No patients discontinued treatment because of sedation or somnolence.
The potential for cognitive and motor impairment is increased when ADASUVE is administered concurrently with other CNS depressants [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]. Caution patients about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that therapy with ADASUVE does not affect them adversely.
5.8 Cerebrovascular Reactions, Including Stroke, in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis
In placebo-controlled trials with atypical antipsychotics in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, there was a higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse reactions (stroke and transient ischemic attacks), including fatalities, compared to placebo-treated patients. ADASUVE is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
ADASUVE has anticholinergic activity, and it has the potential to cause anticholinergic adverse reactions including exacerbation of glaucoma or urinary retention. The concomitant use of other anticholinergic drugs (e.g., antiparkinson drugs) with ADASUVE could have additive effects.
The following adverse reactions are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Hypersensitivity (serious skin reactions) [see Contraindications (4)]
- Bronchospasm [see Warning and Precautions (5.1)]
- Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis [see Warning and Precautions (5.3)]
- Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Hypotension and syncope [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Seizure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
- Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
- Cerebrovascular Reactions, Including Stroke, in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
- Anticholinergic Reactions Including Exacerbation of Glaucoma and Urinary Retention [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
The following findings are based on pooled data from three short-term (24-hour), randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials (Studies 1, 2, and 3) of ADASUVE 10 mg in the treatment of patients with acute agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder. In the 3 trials, 259 patients received ADASUVE 10 mg, and 263 received placebo [see Clinical Studies (14)].
Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions: In the 3 trials in acute agitation, the most common adverse reactions were dysgeusia, sedation, and throat irritation. These reactions occurred at a rate of at least 2% of the ADASUVE group and at a rate greater than in the placebo group. (Refer to Table 1).
|Adverse Reaction||Placebo (n = 263)||ADASUVE (n = 259)|
Airway Adverse Reactions in the 3 Trials in Acute Agitation
Agitated patients with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder: In the 3 short-term (24-hour), placebo-controlled trials in patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (Studies 1, 2, and 3), bronchospasm (which includes reports of wheezing, shortness of breath and cough) occurred more frequently in the ADASUVE group, compared to the placebo group: 0% (0/263) in the placebo group and 0.8% (2/259) in the ADASUVE 10 mg group. One patient with schizophrenia, without a history of pulmonary disease, had significant bronchospasm requiring rescue treatment with a bronchodilator and oxygen.
Bronchospasm and Airway Adverse Reactions in Pulmonary Safety Trials
Clinical pulmonary safety trials demonstrated that ADASUVE can cause bronchospasm as measured by FEV1, and as indicated by respiratory signs and symptoms in the trials. In addition, the trials demonstrated that patients with asthma or other pulmonary diseases, such as COPD are at increased risk of bronchospasm. The effect of ADASUVE on pulmonary function was evaluated in 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical pulmonary safety trials in healthy volunteers, patients with asthma, and patients with COPD. Pulmonary function was assessed by serial FEV1 tests, and respiratory signs and symptoms were assessed. In the asthma and COPD trials, patients with respiratory symptoms or FEV1 decrease of ≥ 20% were administered rescue treatment with albuterol (metered dose inhaler or nebulizer) as required. These patients were not eligible for a second dose; however, they had continued FEV1 monitoring in the trial.
Healthy Volunteers: In the healthy volunteer crossover trial, 30 subjects received 2 doses of either ADASUVE or placebo 8 hours apart, and 2 doses of the alternate treatment at least 4 days later. The results for maximum decrease in FEV1 are presented in Table 2. No subjects in this trial developed airway related adverse reactions (cough, wheezing, chest tightness, or dyspnea).
Asthma Patients: In the asthma trial, 52 patients with mild-moderate persistent asthma (with FEV1 ≥ 60% of predicted) were randomized to treatment with 2 doses of ADASUVE 10 mg or placebo. The second dose was to be administered 10 hours after the first dose. Approximately 67% of these patients had a baseline FEV1 ≥ 80% of predicted. The remaining patients had an FEV1 60-80% of predicted. Nine patients (17%) were former smokers. As shown in Table 2 and Figure 7, there was a marked decrease in FEV1 immediately following the first dose (maximum mean decreases in FEV1 and % predicted FEV1 were 303 mL and 9.1%, respectively). Furthermore, the effect on FEV1 was greater following the second dose (maximum mean decreases in FEV1 and % predicted FEV1 were 537 mL and 14.7 %, respectively). Respiratory-related adverse reactions (bronchospasm, chest discomfort, cough, dyspnea, throat tightness, and wheezing) occurred in 54% of ADASUVE-treated patients and 12% of placebo-treated patients. There were no serious adverse events. Nine of 26 (35%) patients in the ADASUVE group, compared to one of 26 (4%) in the placebo group, did not receive a second dose of study medication, because they had a ≥ 20% decrease in FEV1 or they developed respiratory symptoms after the first dose. Rescue medication (albuterol via metered dose inhaler or nebulizer) was administered to 54% of patients in the ADASUVE group [7 patients (27%) after the first dose and 7 of the remaining 17 patients (41%) after the second dose] and 12% in the placebo group (1 patient after the first dose and 2 patients after the second dose).
COPD Patients: In the COPD trial, 53 patients with mild to severe COPD (with FEV1 ≥ 40% of predicted) were randomized to treatment with 2 doses of ADASUVE 10 mg or placebo. The second dose was to be administered 10 hours after the first dose. Approximately 57% of these patients had moderate COPD [Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Stage II]; 32% had severe disease (GOLD Stage III); and 11% had mild disease (GOLD Stage I). As illustrated in Table 2 there was a decrease in FEV1 soon after the first dose (maximum mean decreases in FEV1 and % predicted FEV1 were 96 mL and 3.5%, respectively), and the effect on FEV1 was greater following the second dose (maximum mean decreases in FEV1 and % predicted FEV1 were 125 mL and 4.5%, respectively). Respiratory adverse reactions occurred more frequently in the ADASUVE group (19%) than in the placebo group (11%). There were no serious adverse events. Seven of 25 (28%) patients in the ADASUVE group and 1of 27 (4%) in the placebo group did not receive a second dose of study medication because of a ≥ 20% decrease in FEV1 or the development of respiratory symptoms after the first dose. Rescue medication (albuterol via MDI or nebulizer) was administered to 23% of patients in the ADASUVE group: 8% of patients after the first dose and 21% of patients after the second dose, and to 15% of patients in the placebo group.
|Maximum % FEV ↓||Placebo n (%)||ADASUVE 10 mg n (%)||Placebo n (%)||ADASUVE 10 mg n (%)||Placebo n (%)||ADASUVE 10 mg n (%)|
|After any Dose||N=26||N=26||N=26||N=26||N=27||N=25|
|≥10||7 (27)||7 (27)||3 (12)||22 (85)||18 (67)||20 (80)|
|≥15||1 (4)||5 (19)||1 (4)||16 (62)||9 (33)||14 (56)|
|≥20||0||1 (4)||1 (4)||11 (42)||3 (11)||10 (40)|
|After Dose 1||N=26||N=26||N=26||N=26||N=27||N=25|
|≥10||4 (15)||5 (19)||2 (8)||16 (62)||8 (30)||16 (64)|
|≥15||1 (4)||2 (8)||1 (4)||8 (31)||4 (15)||10 (40)|
|≥20||0||0||1 (4)||6 (23)||2 (7)||9 (36)|
|After Dose 2||N=26||N=25||N=25||N=17||N=26||N=19|
|≥10||5 (19)||6 (24)||3 (12)||12 (71)||15 (58)||12 (63)|
|≥15||0||5 (20)||1 (4)||9 (53)||6 (23)||10 (53)|
|≥20||0||1 (4)||1 (4)||5 (30)||1 (4)||5 (26)|
FEV1 categories are cumulative; i.e. a subject with a maximum decrease of 21% is included in all 3 categories. Patients with a ≥ 20% decrease in FEV1 did not receive a second dose of study drug.
Figure 7: LS Mean Change from Baseline in FEV1 in Patients with Asthma
Patients with a ≥ 20% decrease in FEV1 did not receive a second dose of study drug and are not included in the curves beyond hour 10.
Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS): Extrapyramidal reactions have occurred during the administration of oral loxapine. In most patients, these reactions involved parkinsonian symptoms such as tremor, rigidity, and masked facies. Akathisia (motor restlessness) has also occurred.
In the 3 short-term (24-hour), placebo-controlled trials of ADASUVE in 259 patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, extrapyramidal reactions occurred. One patient (0.4%) treated with ADASUVE developed neck dystonia and oculogyration. The incidence of akathisia was 0% and 0.4% in the placebo and ADASUVE groups, respectively.
Dystonia (Antipsychotic Class Effect): Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during treatment with ADASUVE. Dystonic symptoms include spasm of the neck muscles, sometimes progressing to tightness of the throat, difficulty swallowing or breathing, and/or protrusion of the tongue.
Acute dystonia tends to be dose-related, but can occur at low doses, and occurs more frequently with first generation antipsychotic drugs such as ADASUVE. The risk is greater in males and younger age groups.
Cardiovascular Reactions: Tachycardia, hypotension, hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, lightheadedness, and syncope have been reported with oral administration of loxapine.
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.