ADASUVE is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant. The concurrent use of ADASUVE with other CNS depressants (e.g., alcohol, opioid analgesics, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants, general anesthetics, phenothiazines, sedative/hypnotics, muscle relaxants, and/or illicit CNS depressants) can increase the risk of respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and syncope. Therefore, consider reducing the dose of CNS depressants if used concomitantly with ADASUVE.
ADASUVE has anticholinergic activity. The concomitant use of ADASUVE and other anticholinergic drugs can increase the risk of anticholinergic adverse reactions including exacerbation of glaucoma and urinary retention.
In general, no dose adjustment for ADASUVE is required on the basis of a patient’s age, gender, race, smoking status, hepatic function, or renal function.
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of ADASUVE use in pregnant women. Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. Loxapine, the active ingredient in ADASUVE, has demonstrated increased embryofetal toxicity and death in rat fetuses and offspring exposed to doses approximately 0.5-fold the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mg/m2 basis. ADASUVE should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress, and feeding disorders in these neonates. These complications have varied in severity; in some cases symptoms have been self-limited, but in other cases neonates have required intensive care unit support and prolonged hospitalization.
In rats, embryofetal toxicity (increased fetal resorptions, reduced weights, and hydronephrosis with hydroureter) was observed following oral administration of loxapine during the period of organogenesis at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day. This dose is equivalent to the MRHD of 10 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis. In addition, fetal toxicity (increased prenatal death, decreased postnatal survival, reduced fetal weights, delayed ossification, and/or distended renal pelvis with reduced or absent papillae) was observed following oral administration of loxapine from mid-pregnancy through weaning at doses of 0.6 mg/kg and higher. This dose is approximately half the MRHD of 10 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis.
No teratogenicity was observed following oral administration of loxapine during the period of organogenesis in the rat, rabbit, or dog at doses up to 12, 60, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. These doses are approximately 12-, 120-, and 32-fold the MRHD of 10 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis, respectively.
It is not known whether ADASUVE is present in human milk. Loxapine and its metabolites are present in the milk of lactating dogs. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ADASUVE, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue ADASUVE, taking in to account the importance of the drug to the mother.
The safety and effectiveness of ADASUVE in pediatric patients have not been established.
Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. ADASUVE is not approved for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis. Placebo-controlled studies of ADASUVE in patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder did not include patients over 65 years of age.
Signs and Symptoms of Overdosage
As would be expected from the pharmacologic actions of loxapine, the clinical findings may include CNS depression, unconsciousness, profound hypotension, respiratory depression, extrapyramidal symptoms, and seizure.
Management of Overdosage
For the most up to date information on the management of ADASUVE overdosage, contact a certified poison control center (1-800-222-1222 or www.poison.org). Provide supportive care including close medical supervision and monitoring. Treatment should consist of general measures employed in the management of overdosage with any drug. Consider the possibility of multiple drug overdosage. Ensure an adequate airway, oxygenation, and ventilation. Monitor cardiac rhythm and vital signs. Use supportive and symptomatic measures.
ADASUVE, a typical antipsychotic, is an inhalation powder of loxapine supplied in a single-use, disposable inhaler containing 10 mg of loxapine base. ADASUVE is a drug-device combination product.
Active Ingredient: Loxapine (base). Loxapine, a dibenzoxazepine compound, represents a subclass of tricyclic antipsychotic agents, chemically distinct from the thioxanthenes, butyrophenones, and phenothiazines. Chemically, it is 2-Chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl) dibenz [b,f] [1,4] oxazepine.
ADASUVE is a single-use, drug-device combination product that provides rapid systemic delivery by inhalation of a thermally-generated aerosol of loxapine. Oral inhalation through the product initiates the controlled rapid heating of a thin film of excipient-free loxapine to form a thermally-generated drug vapor. The vapor condenses into aerosol particles that are dispersed into the airstream created by the patient inhaling through the mouthpiece.
Each product is packaged inside a sealed foil pouch. The product is a white to off-white plastic unit, with a mouthpiece on one end and a pull-tab protruding from the other end.
Removal of a pull-tab from the product renders it ready for use, as indicated by illumination of a green light. After inhalation through the mouthpiece, successful dosing is signaled by the green light turning off.
Under standardized in vitro test conditions, ADASUVE, 10 mg delivers 9.1 mg of loxapine out of the mouthpiece.
The mechanism of action of loxapine in the treatment of agitation associated with schizophrenia is unknown. However, its efficacy could be mediated through a combination of antagonism of central dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. The mechanism of action of loxapine in the treatment of agitation associated with bipolar I disorder is unknown.
Loxapine acts as an antagonist at central serotonin and dopamine receptors, with high affinity for serotonin 5-HT2A and dopamine D1 , D2 , D3 , and D4 receptors (Ki values of 2 nM, 18 nM, 10 nM, 21 nM, 9 nM, respectively). Some of the adverse effects of loxapine may be related to the antagonism of histamine H1 (somnolence), muscarinic M1 (anticholinergic), and adrenergic α2 (orthostatic hypotension) receptors (Ki values of 15 nM, 117 nM and 250 nM, respectively).
Thorough QTc Study
ADASUVE did not prolong the QTc interval. The effect of ADASUVE on QTc prolongation was evaluated in a randomized, double-blinded, positive- (moxifloxacin 400 mg) and placebo-controlled parallel study in healthy subjects. A total of 48 healthy subjects were administered ADASUVE 10 mg. In this study with a demonstrated ability to detect small effects, the upper bound of the 90% confidence interval (CI) for the largest placebo-adjusted, baseline-corrected QTc based on individual correction method was below 10 milliseconds, the threshold for regulatory concern.
Absorption: The single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters of loxapine following administration of single doses of ADASUVE 10 mg in healthy adult subjects are presented in Table 3 and Figure 8.
Administration of ADASUVE resulted in rapid absorption of loxapine, with a median time of maximum plasma concentration (Tmax ) of 2 minutes. Loxapine exposure in the first 2 hours after administration (AUC0-2h ) was 66.7 ng*h/mL for the 10 mg dose. As a consequence of the very rapid absorption of loxapine after oral inhalation, there is substantial variability in the early plasma concentrations of loxapine. The mean plasma loxapine concentrations following administration of ADASUVE were linear over the clinical dose range. AUC0-2h , AUCinf , and Cmax increased in a dose-dependent manner.
|ADASUVE 10 mg (N=114)|
|AUC0-2h (ng·h/mL), mean ± SD||66.7 ± 18.2|
|AUCinf (ng·h/mL), mean ± SD||188 ± 47|
|Cmax (ng/mL), mean ± SD||257 ± 219|
|Tmax (minutes), median (25%, 75%)||1.13 (1, 2)|
|Half-life(h), mean ± SD||7.61 ± 1.87|
Figure 8. Mean Plasma Concentrations of Loxapine following Single-Dose Administration ADASUVE 10 mg in Healthy Subjects
Distribution: Loxapine is removed rapidly from the plasma and distributed in tissues. Animal studies following oral administration suggest an initial preferential distribution in the lungs, brain, spleen, heart, and kidney. Loxapine is 96.6% bound to human plasma proteins.
Metabolism: Loxapine is metabolized extensively in the liver following oral administration, with multiple metabolites formed. The main metabolic pathways include: 1) hydroxylation to form 8-OH-loxapine by CYP1A2 and 7-OH-loxapine by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, 2) N-oxidation to form loxapine N-oxide by flavanoid monoamine oxidases (FMOs), and 3) de-methylation to form amoxapine. Because there are multiple metabolic pathways, the risk of metabolic interactions caused by an effect on an individual isoform is minimal. For ADASUVE, the order of metabolites observed in humans (based on systemic exposure) was 8-OH-loxapine >> loxapine N-oxide, 7-OH-loxapine > amoxapine. Plasma levels of 8-OH-loxapine are similar to those of the parent compound.
Excretion: Excretion occurs mainly in the first 24 hours. Metabolites are excreted in the urine in the form of conjugates and in the feces unconjugated. The terminal elimination half-life (T1/2 ) ranged from 6 to 8 hours.
Transporter Interaction: In vitro studies indicated that loxapine was not a substrate for p-glycoprotein (P-gp): however, loxapine inhibited P-gp.
Pharmacokinetics in Smokers: Loxapine exposures in nonsmokers and smokers are similar, with geometric mean ratios of 92%, 85%, and 99% for AUC0-2, AUCinf, and Cmax respectively. No dosage adjustment is recommended based on smoking status.
Demographic Effects: There were no clinically significant differences in loxapine pharmacokinetics following administration of ADASUVE in subgroups based on age, weight, body mass index, gender, or race.
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