ADRENALIN- epinephrine injection
Emergency treatment of allergic reactions (Type I), including anaphylaxis, which may result from insect stings or bites, foods, drugs, sera, diagnostic testing substances and other allergens, as well as idiopathic anaphylaxis or exercise-induced anaphylaxis.
Adrenalinis indicated to increase mean arterial blood pressure in adult patients with hypotension associated with septic shock.
Inspect visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration; solution should be clear and colorless. Do not use if the solution is colored or cloudy, or if it contains particulate matter.
Inject Adrenalin intramuscularly or subcutaneously into the anterolateral aspect of the thigh, through clothing if necessary. When administering to a child, to minimize the risk of injection related injury, hold the leg firmly in place and limit movement prior to and during an injection. The injection may be repeated every 5 to 10 minutes as necessary. For intramuscular administration, use a needle long enough (at least 1/2 inch) to ensure the injection is administered into the muscle. Monitor the patient clinically for the severity of the allergic reaction and potential cardiac effects of the drug, and repeat as needed. Do not administer repeated injections at the same site, as the resulting vasoconstriction may cause tissue necrosis.
Adults and Children 30 kg (66 lbs) or more: 0.3 to 0.5 mg (0.3 to 0.5 mL) of undiluted Adrenalin administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously in the anterolateral aspect of the thigh, up to a maximum of 0.5 mg (0.5 mL) per injection, repeated every 5 to 10 minutes as necessary. Monitor clinically for reaction severity and cardiac effects.
Children less than 30 kg (66 lbs): 0.01 mg/kg (0.01 mL/kg) of undiluted Adrenalin administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously in the anterolateral aspect of the thigh, up to a maximum of 0.3 mg (0.3 mL) per injection, repeated every 5 to 10 minutes as necessary. Monitor clinically for reaction severity and cardiac effects.
Dilute 1 mL (1 mg) of epinephrine from its vial to 1,000 mL of a 5 percent dextrose or 5 percent dextrose and sodium chloride solution to produce a 1 mcg per mL dilution. Administration in saline solution alone is not recommended. If indicated, administer whole blood or plasma separately.
Whenever possible, give infusions of epinephrine into a large vein. Avoid using a catheter tie-in technique, because the obstruction to blood flow around the tubing may cause stasis and increased local concentration of the drug. Avoid the veins of the leg in elderly patients or in those suffering from occlusive vascular diseases.
To provide hemodynamic support in septic shock associated hypotension in adult patients, the suggested dosing infusion rate of intravenously administered epinephrine is 0.05 to 2 mcg/kg/min, and is titrated to achieve a desired mean arterial pressure (MAP). The dosage may be adjusted periodically, such as every 10 to 15 minutes, in increments of 0.05 to 0.2 mcg/kg/min, to achieve the desired blood pressure goal.
After hemodynamic stabilization, wean incrementally over time, such as by decreasing doses of epinephrine every 10 minutes to determine if the patient can tolerate gradual withdrawal.
Adrenalin diluted in 5 percent dextrose solutions or 5 percent dextrose and sodium chloride solutions are stable for 4 hours at room temperature or 24 hours under refrigerated conditions.
Adrenalin injection: clear, colorless solution supplied as 1 mg/1 mL in a single dose clear glass vial and as 30 mg/30 mL (1 mg/mL) in a multiple dose amber glass vial.
Injection into the anterolateral aspect of the thigh (vastus lateralis muscle) is the most appropriate location for administration because of its location, size, and available blood flow. Injection into (or near) smaller muscles, such as in the deltoid, is not recommended.
Do not administer repeated injections of epinephrine at the same site, as the resulting vasoconstriction may cause tissue necrosis.
Do not inject into buttock. Injection into the buttock may not provide effective treatment of anaphylaxis and has been associated with the development of Clostridial infections (gas gangrene).
Do not inject into digits, hands, or feet. Epinephrine is a strong vasoconstrictor. Accidental injection into the digits, hands or feet may result in loss of blood flow to the affected area and tissue necrosis.
Rare cases of serious skin and soft tissue infections, including necrotizing fasciitis and myonecrosis caused by Clostridia (gas gangrene), have been reported at the injection site following epinephrine injection for anaphylaxis. Advise patients to seek medical care if they develop signs or symptoms of infection, such as persistent redness, warmth, swelling, or tenderness, at the epinephrine injection site.
Avoid extravasation of epinephrine into the tissues, to prevent local necrosis. When Adrenalin is administered intravenously, check the infusion site frequently for free flow. Blanching along the course of the infused vein, sometimes without obvious extravasation, may be attributed to vasa vasorum constriction with increased permeability of the vein wall, permitting some leakage. This also may progress on rare occasions to superficial slough. Hence, if blanching occurs, consider changing the infusion site at intervals to allow the effects of local vasoconstriction to subside.
There is potential for gangrene in a lower extremity when infusions of catecholamine are given in an ankle vein.
Antidote for Extravasation Ischemia: To prevent sloughing and necrosis in areas in which extravasation has taken place, infiltrate the area with 10 mL to 15 mL of saline solution containing from 5 mg to 10 mg of phentolamine , an adrenergic blocking agent. Use a syringe with a fine hypodermic needle, with the solution being infiltrated liberally throughout the area, which is easily identified by its cold, hard, and pallid appearance. Sympathetic blockade with phentolamine causes immediate and conspicuous local hyperemic changes if the area is infiltrated within 12 hours.
Because individual response to epinephrine may vary significantly, monitor blood pressure frequently and titrate to avoid excessive increases in blood pressure.
Patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) or antidepressants of the triptyline or imipramine types may experience severe, prolonged hypertension when given epinephrine.
Epinephrine increases cardiac output and causes peripheral vasoconstriction, which may result in pulmonary edema.
Epinephrine constricts renal blood vessels, which may result in oliguria or renal impairment.
Epinephrine may induce cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia in patients, especially patients suffering from coronary artery disease, or cardiomyopathy.
Adrenalin contains sodium bisulfite which may cause mild to severe allergic reactions including anaphylaxis or asthmatic episodes in susceptible individuals. However, the presence of bisulfite in this product should not preclude its use for the treatment of serious allergic or other emergency situations even if the patient is sulfite-sensitive, as the alternatives to using epinephrine in a life-threatening situation may not be satisfactory.
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