There are no available data on the presence of fluticasone propionate or salmeterol in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. Other corticosteroids have been detected in human milk. However, fluticasone propionate and salmeterol concentrations in plasma after inhaled therapeutic doses are low and therefore concentrations in human breast milk are likely to be correspondingly low [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for ADVAIR HFA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from ADVAIR HFA or from the underlying maternal condition.
Animal Data: Subcutaneous administration of tritiated fluticasone propionate at a dose of 10 mcg/kg/day to lactating rats resulted in measurable levels in milk. Oral administration of salmeterol at a dose of 10,000 mcg/kg/day to lactating rats resulted in measurable levels in milk.
The safety and effectiveness of ADVAIR HFA have been established in pediatric patients aged 12 years and older. Use of ADVAIR HFA in this age group is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies in adults with additional data from thirty-eight (38) subjects aged 12 to 17 years were treated with ADVAIR HFA in U.S. pivotal clinical trials. Subjects in this age group demonstrated efficacy results similar to those observed in subjects aged 18 years and older. There were no obvious differences in the type or frequency of adverse events reported in this age group compared with subjects aged 18 years and older.
In a 12-week trial, the safety of ADVAIR HFA 45 mcg/21 mcg given as 2 inhalations twice daily was compared with that of fluticasone propionate 44 mcg HFA (FLOVENT HFA) 2 inhalations twice daily in 350 subjects aged 4 to 11 years with persistent asthma currently being treated with ICS. No new safety concerns were observed in children aged 4 to 11 years treated for 12 weeks with ADVAIR HFA 45 mcg/21 mcg compared with adults and adolescents aged 12 years and older. Common adverse reactions (≥3%) seen in children aged 4 to 11 years treated with ADVAIR HFA 45 mcg/21 mcg but not reported in the adult and adolescent clinical trials of ADVAIR HFA include: pyrexia, cough, pharyngolaryngeal pain, rhinitis, and sinusitis [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. This trial was not designed to assess the effect of salmeterol, a component of ADVAIR HFA, on asthma hospitalizations and death in subjects aged 4 to 11 years.
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effect on serum cortisol of 21 days of treatment with ADVAIR HFA 45 mcg/21 mcg (2 inhalations twice daily with or without a spacer) or ADVAIR DISKUS 100 mcg/50 mcg (1 inhalation twice daily) was evaluated in a trial of 31 children aged 4 to 11 years with mild asthma. Systemic exposure to salmeterol xinafoate was similar for ADVAIR HFA, ADVAIR HFA delivered with a spacer, and ADVAIR DISKUS while the systemic exposure to fluticasone propionate was lower with ADVAIR HFA compared with that of ADVAIR HFA delivered with a spacer or ADVAIR DISKUS. There were reductions in serum cortisol from baseline in all treatment groups (14%, 22%, and 13% for ADVAIR HFA, ADVAIR HFA delivered with a spacer, and ADVAIR DISKUS, respectively) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2, 12.3)].
The safety and effectiveness of ADVAIR HFA in pediatric patients younger than 12 years have not been established.
Effects on Growth
ICS, including fluticasone propionate, a component of ADVAIR HFA, may cause a reduction in growth velocity in children and adolescents [see Warnings and Precautions (5.14)]. The growth of pediatric patients receiving orally inhaled corticosteroids, including ADVAIR HFA, should be monitored.
A 52-week placebo-controlled trial to assess the potential growth effects of fluticasone propionate inhalation powder (FLOVENT ROTADISK) at 50 and 100 mcg twice daily was conducted in the U.S. in 325 prepubescent children (244 males and 81 females) aged 4 to 11 years. The mean growth velocities at 52 weeks observed in the intent-to-treat population were 6.32 cm/year in the placebo group (n = 76), 6.07 cm/year in the 50-mcg group (n = 98), and 5.66 cm/year in the 100-mcg group (n = 89). An imbalance in the proportion of children entering puberty between groups and a higher dropout rate in the placebo group due to poorly controlled asthma may be confounding factors in interpreting these data. A separate subset analysis of children who remained prepubertal during the trial revealed growth rates at 52 weeks of 6.10 cm/year in the placebo group (n = 57), 5.91 cm/year in the 50-mcg group (n = 74), and 5.67 cm/year in the 100-mcg group (n = 79). In children aged 8.5 years, the mean age of children in this trial, the range for expected growth velocity is: boys – 3rd percentile = 3.8 cm/year, 50th percentile = 5.4 cm/year, and 97th percentile = 7.0 cm/year; girls – 3rd percentile = 4.2 cm/year, 50th percentile = 5.7 cm/year, and 97th percentile = 7.3 cm/year. The clinical relevance of these growth data is not certain.
If a child or adolescent on any corticosteroid appears to have growth suppression, the possibility that he/she is particularly sensitive to this effect of corticosteroids should be considered. The potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against the clinical benefits obtained. To minimize the systemic effects of orally inhaled corticosteroids, including ADVAIR HFA, each patient should be titrated to the lowest strength that effectively controls his/her asthma [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
Clinical trials of ADVAIR HFA did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 years and older to determine whether older subjects respond differently than younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. In addition, as with other products containing beta2 -agonists, special caution should be observed when using ADVAIR HFA in geriatric patients who have concomitant cardiovascular disease that could be adversely affected by beta2 -agonists.
Formal pharmacokinetic studies using ADVAIR HFA have not been conducted in patients with hepatic impairment. However, since both fluticasone propionate and salmeterol are predominantly cleared by hepatic metabolism, impairment of liver function may lead to accumulation of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol in plasma. Therefore, patients with hepatic disease should be closely monitored.
Formal pharmacokinetic studies using ADVAIR HFA have not been conducted in patients with renal impairment.
No human overdosage data has been reported for ADVAIR HFA.
ADVAIR HFA contains both fluticasone propionate and salmeterol; therefore, the risks associated with overdosage for the individual components described below apply to ADVAIR HFA. Treatment of overdosage consists of discontinuation of ADVAIR HFA together with institution of appropriate symptomatic and/or supportive therapy. The judicious use of a cardioselective beta-receptor blocker may be considered, bearing in mind that such medication can produce bronchospasm. Cardiac monitoring is recommended in cases of overdosage.
Chronic overdosage of fluticasone propionate may result in signs/symptoms of hypercorticism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].
The expected signs and symptoms with overdosage of salmeterol are those of excessive beta‑adrenergic stimulation and/or occurrence or exaggeration of any of the signs and symptoms of beta-adrenergic stimulation (e.g., seizures, angina, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia with rates up to 200 beats/min, arrhythmias, nervousness, headache, tremor, muscle cramps, dry mouth, palpitation, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, malaise, insomnia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis). Overdosage with salmeterol can lead to clinically significant prolongation of the QTc interval, which can produce ventricular arrhythmias.
As with all inhaled sympathomimetic medicines, cardiac arrest and even death may be associated with an overdose of salmeterol.
ADVAIR HFA 45 mcg/21 mcg, ADVAIR HFA 115 mcg/21 mcg, and ADVAIR HFA 230 mcg/21 mcg are combinations of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol xinafoate.
One active component of ADVAIR HFA is fluticasone propionate, a corticosteroid having the chemical name S- (fluoromethyl) 6α,9-difluoro-11β,17-dihydroxy-16α-methyl-3-oxoandrosta-1,4-diene-17β-carbothioate, 17-propionate and the following chemical structure:
Fluticasone propionate is a white powder with a molecular weight of 500.6, and the empirical formula is C25 H31 F3 O5 S. It is practically insoluble in water, freely soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethylformamide, and slightly soluble in methanol and 95% ethanol.
The other active component of ADVAIR HFA is salmeterol xinafoate, a beta2 -adrenergic bronchodilator. Salmeterol xinafoate is the racemic form of the 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid salt of salmeterol. It has the chemical name 4-hydroxy-α1 -[[[6-(4-phenylbutoxy)hexyl]amino]methyl]-1,3-benzenedimethanol, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthalenecarboxylate and the following chemical structure:
Salmeterol xinafoate is a white powder with a molecular weight of 603.8, and the empirical formula is C25 H37 NO4 •C11 H8 O3 . It is freely soluble in methanol; slightly soluble in ethanol, chloroform, and isopropanol; and sparingly soluble in water.
ADVAIR HFA is a purple plastic inhaler with a light purple cap containing a pressurized metered-dose aerosol canister fitted with a counter. Each canister contains a microcrystalline suspension of micronized fluticasone propionate and micronized salmeterol xinafoate in propellant HFA-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane). It contains no other excipients.
After priming, each actuation of the inhaler delivers 50, 125, or 250 mcg of fluticasone propionate and 25 mcg of salmeterol in 75 mg of suspension from the valve. Each actuation delivers 45, 115, or 230 mcg of fluticasone propionate and 21 mcg of salmeterol from the actuator. Twenty-one micrograms (21 mcg) of salmeterol base is equivalent to 30.45 mcg of salmeterol xinafoate. The actual amount of drug delivered to the lung will depend on patient factors, such as the coordination between the actuation of the inhaler and inspiration through the delivery system.
Prime ADVAIR HFA before using for the first time by releasing 4 sprays into the air away from the face, shaking well for 5 seconds before each spray. In cases where the inhaler has not been used for more than 4 weeks or when it has been dropped, prime the inhaler again by releasing 2 sprays into the air away from the face, shaking well for 5 seconds before each spray. Avoid spraying in eyes.
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