AFREZZA- insulin human powder, metered
AFREZZA- insulin human
Sanofi-Aventis U.S. LLC



AFREZZA® is a rapid acting inhaled insulin indicated to improve glycemic control in adult patients with diabetes mellitus.

Limitations of Use:

  • AFREZZA is not a substitute for long-acting insulin. AFREZZA must be used in combination with long-acting insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
  • AFREZZA is not recommended for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis [see Warning and Precautions (5.6)].
  • The safety and efficacy of AFREZZA in patients who smoke has not been established. The use of AFREZZA is not recommended in patients who smoke or who have recently stopped smoking.


2.1 Route of Administration

AFREZZA should only be administered via oral inhalation using the AFREZZA Inhaler. AFREZZA is administered using a single inhalation per cartridge.

2.2 Dosage Information

Administer AFREZZA at the beginning of the meal.

Dosage adjustment may be needed when switching from another insulin to AFREZZA [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Starting Mealtime Dose:

  • Insulin Naïve Individuals: Start on 4 units of AFREZZA at each meal.
  • Individuals Using Subcutaneous Mealtime (Prandial) Insulin: Determine the appropriate AFREZZA dose for each meal by converting from the injected dose using Figure 1.
  • Individuals Using Subcutaneous Pre-mixed Insulin: Estimate the mealtime injected dose by dividing half of the total daily injected pre-mixed insulin dose equally among the three meals of the day. Convert each estimated injected mealtime dose to an appropriate AFREZZA dose using Figure 1. Administer half of the total daily injected pre-mixed dose as an injected basal insulin dose.

Figure 1. Mealtime AFREZZA Dose Conversion Table

Figure 1
(click image for full-size original)

Mealtime Dose Adjustment

Adjust the dosage of AFREZZA based on the individual’s metabolic needs, blood glucose monitoring results and glycemic control goal.

Dosage adjustments may be needed with changes in physical activity, changes in meal patterns (i.e., macronutrient content or timing of food intake), changes in renal or hepatic function or during acute illness [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) , and Use in Specific Populations (8.6,8.7)].

Carefully monitor blood glucose control in patients requiring high doses of AFREZZA. If, in these patients, blood glucose control is not achieved with increased AFREZZA doses, consider use of subcutaneous mealtime insulin.

2.3 AFREZZA Administration for Doses Exceeding 12 units

For AFREZZA doses exceeding 12 units, inhalations from multiple cartridges are necessary. To achieve the required total mealtime dose, patients should use a combination of 4 unit, 8 unit and 12 unit cartridges. Examples of cartridge combinations for doses of up to 24 units are shown in Figure 1. For doses above 24 units, combinations of different multiple cartridges can be used.

2.4 Dosage Adjustment due to Drug Interactions

Dosage adjustment may be needed when AFREZZA is coadministered with certain drugs [see Drug Interactions (7)].

2.5 Lung Function Assessment Prior to Administration

AFREZZA is contraindicated in patients with chronic lung disease because of the risk of acute bronchospasm in these patients. Before initiating AFREZZA, perform a medical history, physical examination and spirometry (FEV1 ) in all patients to identify potential lung disease [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

2.6 Important Administration Instructions

See Patient Instructions for Use for complete administration instructions with illustrations.

Keep the inhaler level with the white mouthpiece on top and purple base on the bottom after a cartridge has been inserted into the inhaler. Loss of drug effect can occur if the inhaler is turned upside down, held with the mouthpiece pointing down, shaken (or dropped) after the cartridge has been inserted but before the dose has been administered. If any of the above occur, the cartridge should be replaced before use.


AFREZZA (insulin human) Inhalation Powder is available as 4 unit, 8 unit and 12 unit single use cartridges to be administered via oral inhalation with the AFREZZA Inhaler only. [see How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16)].


AFREZZA is contraindicated in patients with the following:

  • During episodes of hypoglycemia
  • Chronic lung disease, such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), because of the risk of acute bronchospasm [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
  • Hypersensitivity to regular human insulin or any of the AFREZZA excipients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].


5.1 Acute Bronchospasm in Patients with Chronic Lung Disease

Because of the risk of acute bronchospasm, AFREZZA is contraindicated in patients with chronic lung disease such as asthma or COPD [ see Contraindications (4)].

Before initiating therapy with AFREZZA, evaluate all patients with a medical history, physical examination and spirometry (FEV1 ) to identify potential underlying lung disease.

Acute bronchospasm has been observed following AFREZZA dosing in patients with asthma and patients with COPD. In a study of patients with asthma, bronchoconstriction and wheezing following AFREZZA dosing was reported in 29% (5 out of 17) and 0% (0 out of 13) of patients with and without a diagnosis of asthma, respectively. In this study, a mean decline in FEV1 of 400 mL was observed 15 minutes after a single dose in patients with asthma. In a study of patients with COPD (n=8), a mean decline in FEV1 of 200 mL was observed 18 minutes after a single dose of AFREZZA. The long-term safety and efficacy of AFREZZA in patients with chronic lung disease has not been established.

5.2 Changes in Insulin Regimen

Glucose monitoring is essential for patients receiving insulin therapy. Changes in insulin strength, manufacturer, type, or method of administration may affect glycemic control and predispose to hypoglycemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] or hyperglycemia. These changes should be made under close medical supervision and the frequency of blood glucose monitoring should be increased. Concomitant oral antidiabetic treatment may need to be adjusted.

5.3 Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse reaction associated with insulins, including AFREZZA. Severe hypoglycemia can cause seizures, may be life-threatening, or cause death. Hypoglycemia can impair concentration ability and reaction time; this may place an individual and others at risk in situations where these abilities are important (e.g., driving or operating other machinery).

The timing of hypoglycemia usually reflects the time-action profile of the administered insulin formulation. AFREZZA has a distinct time action profile [see Clinical Pharmacology (12)] , which impacts the timing of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia can happen suddenly and symptoms may differ across individuals and change over time in the same individual. Symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia may be less pronounced in patients with longstanding diabetes, in patients with diabetic nerve disease, in patients using certain medications [see Drug Interactions (7)] , or in patients who experience recurrent hypoglycemia. Other factors which may increase the risk of hypoglycemia include changes in meal pattern (e.g., macronutrient content or timing of meals), changes in level of physical activity, or changes to co-administered medication [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Patients with renal or hepatic impairment may be at higher risk of hypoglycemia [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.6, 8.7)].

Risk Mitigation Strategies for Hypoglycemia

Patients and caregivers must be educated to recognize and manage hypoglycemia. Self-monitoring of blood glucose plays an essential role in the prevention and management of hypoglycemia. In patients at higher risk for hypoglycemia and patients who have reduced symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia, increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring is recommended.

All resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2020. All Rights Reserved.