Aggrenox (Page 2 of 6)
6.2 Post-Marketing Experience
The following is a list of additional adverse reactions that have been reported either in the literature or are from post-marketing spontaneous reports for either dipyridamole or aspirin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate reliably their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Decisions to include these reactions in labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the reaction, (2) frequency of reporting, or (3) strength of causal connection to AGGRENOX.
Body as a Whole: Hypothermia, chest pain
Cardiovascular: Angina pectoris
Central Nervous System: Cerebral edema
Fluid and Electrolyte: Hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, hypokalemia
Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis, Reye syndrome, hematemesis
Hearing and Vestibular Disorders: Hearing loss
Immune System Disorders: Hypersensitivity, acute anaphylaxis, laryngeal edema
Liver and Biliary System Disorders: Hepatitis, hepatic failure
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Hypoglycemia, dehydration
Platelet, Bleeding and Clotting Disorders: Prolongation of the prothrombin time, disseminated intravascular coagulation, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia
Reproductive: Prolonged pregnancy and labor, stillbirths, lower birth weight infants, antepartum and postpartum bleeding
Respiratory: Tachypnea, dyspnea
Skin and Appendages Disorders: Rash, alopecia, angioedema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, skin hemorrhages such as bruising, ecchymosis, and hematoma
Urogenital: Interstitial nephritis, papillary necrosis, proteinuria
Vascular (Extracardiac) Disorders: Allergic vasculitis
Other Adverse Events: anorexia, aplastic anemia, migraine, pancytopenia, thrombocytosis.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Drug Interaction Study Information Obtained From Literature
Dipyridamole has been reported to increase the plasma levels and cardiovascular effects of adenosine. Adjustment of adenosine dosage may be necessary.
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme
Due to the indirect effect of aspirin on the renin-angiotensin conversion pathway, the hyponatremic and hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by concomitant administration of aspirin.
Concurrent use of aspirin and acetazolamide can lead to high serum concentrations of acetazolamide (and toxicity) due to competition at the renal tubule for secretion.
Anticoagulants and Antiplatelets
Patients taking AGGRENOX in combination with anticoagulants, antiplatelets, or any substance impacting coagulation are at increased risk for bleeding. Aspirin can displace warfarin from protein binding sites, leading to prolongation of both the prothrombin time and the bleeding time. Aspirin can increase the anticoagulant activity of heparin, increasing bleeding risk.
Patients taking aspirin in combination with anagrelide are at an increased risk of bleeding.
Salicylic acid can displace protein-bound phenytoin and valproic acid, leading to a decrease in the total concentration of phenytoin and an increase in serum valproic acid levels.
The hypotensive effects of beta blockers may be diminished by the concomitant administration of aspirin due to inhibition of renal prostaglandins, leading to decreased renal blood flow and salt and fluid retention.
Dipyridamole may counteract the anticholinesterase effect of cholinesterase inhibitors, thereby potentially aggravating myasthenia gravis.
The effectiveness of diuretics in patients with underlying renal or cardiovascular disease may be diminished by the concomitant administration of aspirin due to inhibition of renal prostaglandins, leading to decreased renal blood flow and salt and fluid retention.
Salicylate can inhibit renal clearance of methotrexate, leading to bone marrow toxicity, especially in the elderly or renal impaired.
The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function.
Moderate doses of aspirin may increase the effectiveness of oral hypoglycemic drugs, leading to hypoglycemia.
Uricosuric Agents (probenecid and sulfinpyrazone)
Salicylates antagonize the uricosuric action of uricosuric agents.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Teratogenic Effects, Pregnancy Category D. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
8.2 Labor and Delivery
Aspirin can result in excessive blood loss at delivery as well as prolonged gestation and prolonged labor. Because of these effects on the mother and because of adverse fetal effects seen with aspirin during the later stages of pregnancy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)], avoid AGGRENOX in the third trimester of pregnancy and during labor and delivery.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
Both dipyridamole and aspirin are excreted in human milk. Exercise caution when AGGRENOX capsules are administered to a nursing woman.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness of AGGRENOX in pediatric patients have not been studied. Due to the aspirin component, use of this product in the pediatric population is not recommended [see Contraindications (4.3)].
8.5 Geriatric Use
Of the total number of subjects in ESPS2, 61 percent were 65 and over, while 27 percent were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
8.6 Patients with Severe Hepatic or Severe Renal Dysfunction
AGGRENOX has not been studied in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. Avoid using aspirin containing products, such as AGGRENOX in patients with severe hepatic or severe renal (glomerular filtration rate <10 mL/min) dysfunction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Because of the dose ratio of dipyridamole to aspirin, overdosage of AGGRENOX is likely to be dominated by signs and symptoms of dipyridamole overdose. In case of real or suspected overdose, seek medical attention or contact a Poison Control Center immediately. Careful medical management is essential.
Based upon the known hemodynamic effects of dipyridamole, symptoms such as warm feeling, flushes, sweating, restlessness, feeling of weakness and dizziness may occur. A drop in blood pressure and tachycardia might also be observed.
Salicylate toxicity may result from acute ingestion (overdose) or chronic intoxication. Severity of aspirin intoxication is determined by measuring the blood salicylate level. The early signs of salicylic overdose (salicylism), including tinnitus (ringing in the ears), occur at plasma concentrations approaching 200 µg/mL. In severe cases, hyperthermia and hypovolemia are the major immediate threats to life. Plasma concentrations of aspirin above 300 µg/mL are clearly toxic. Severe toxic effects are associated with levels above 400 µg/mL. A single lethal dose of aspirin in adults is not known with certainty but death may be expected at 30 g.
Treatment of overdose consists primarily of supporting vital functions, increasing drug elimination, and correcting acid-base disturbances. Consider gastric emptying and/or lavage as soon as possible after ingestion, even if the patient has vomited spontaneously. After lavage and/or emesis, administration of activated charcoal as a slurry may be beneficial if less than 3 hours have passed since ingestion. Charcoal absorption should not be employed prior to emesis and lavage. Follow acid-base status closely with serial blood gas and serum pH measurements. Maintain fluid and electrolyte balance. Administer replacement fluid intravenously and augment with correction of acidosis. Treatment may require the use of a vasopressor. Infusion of glucose may be required to control hypoglycemia.
Administration of xanthine derivatives (e.g., aminophylline) may reverse the hemodynamic effects of dipyridamole overdose. Plasma electrolytes and pH should be monitored serially to promote alkaline diuresis of salicylate if renal function is normal. In patients with renal insufficiency or in cases of life-threatening intoxication, dialysis is usually required to treat salicylic overdose; however, since dipyridamole is highly protein bound, dialysis is not likely to remove dipyridamole. Exchange transfusion may be indicated in infants and young children.
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