Mean decreases of 16% and 22% in serum digoxin levels were demonstrated after single dose intravenous and oral administration of albuterol, respectively, to normal volunteers who had received digoxin for 10 days. The clinical significance of these findings for patients with obstructive airway disease who are receiving albuterol and digoxin on a chronic basis is unclear. Nevertheless, it would be prudent to carefully evaluate the serum digoxin levels in patients who are currently receiving digoxin and albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol.
Albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants, or within 2 weeks of discontinuation of such agents, because the action of albuterol on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. Consider alternative therapy in patients taking MAO inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants.
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to asthma medications during pregnancy. For more information, contact the Mothers To Baby Pregnancy Studies conducted by the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists at 1-877-311-8972 or visit http://mothertobaby.org/pregnancy-studies/.
There are no randomized clinical studies of use of albuterol during pregnancy. Available data from published epidemiological studies and postmarketing case reports of pregnancy outcomes following inhaled albuterol use do not consistently demonstrate a risk of major birth defects or miscarriage. There are clinical considerations with use of albuterol in pregnant women [see Clinical Considerations ]. In animal reproduction studies, when albuterol sulfate was administered subcutaneously to pregnant mice there was evidence of cleft palate at less than and up to 9 times the maximum recommended human daily inhalation dose (MRHDID) [see Data ].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population(s) are unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk
In women with poorly or moderately controlled asthma, there is an increased risk of preeclampsia in the mother and prematurity, low birth weight, and small for gestational age in the neonate. Pregnant women should be closely monitored and medication adjusted as necessary to maintain optimal control.
Labor or Delivery
Because of the potential for beta-agonist interference with uterine contractility, use of PROAIR HFA Inhalation Aerosol for relief of bronchospasm during labor should be restricted to those patients in whom the benefits clearly outweigh the risk. PROAIR HFA Inhalation Aerosol has not been approved for the management of pre-term labor. Serious adverse reactions, including pulmonary edema, have been reported during or following treatment of premature labor with beta2 -agonists, including albuterol.
In a mouse reproduction study, subcutaneously administered albuterol sulfate produced cleft palate formation in 5 of 111 (4.5%) fetuses at an exposure nine-tenths of the MRHDID for adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 0.25 mg/kg) and in 10 of 108 (9.3%) fetuses at approximately 9 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 2.5 mg/kg). Similar effects were not observed at approximately one-eleventh the MRHDID for adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 0.025 mg/kg). Cleft palate also occurred in 22 of 72 (30.5%) fetuses from females treated subcutaneously with isoproterenol (positive control).
In a rabbit reproduction study, orally administered albuterol sulfate induced cranioschisis in 7 of 19 fetuses (37%) at approximately 750 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 50 mg/kg).
In a rat reproduction study, an albuterol sulfate/HFA-134a formulation administered by inhalation did not produce any teratogenic effects at exposures approximately 80 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 10.5 mg/kg).
A study in which pregnant rats were dosed with radiolabeled albuterol sulfate demonstrated that drug-related material is transferred from the maternal circulation to the fetus.
There are no available data on the presence of albuterol in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. However, plasma levels of albuterol after inhaled therapeutic doses are low in humans, and if present in breast milk, albuterol has a low oral bioavailability [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for albuterol and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from albuterol or from the underlying maternal condition.
The safety and effectiveness of albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol for the treatment or prevention of bronchospasm in children 12 years of age and older with reversible obstructive airway disease is based on one 6-week clinical trial in 116 patients 12 years of age and older with asthma comparing doses of 180 mcg four times daily with placebo, and one single-dose crossover study comparing doses of 90, 180, and 270 mcg with placebo in 58 patients [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. The safety and effectiveness of albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol for treatment of exercise-induced bronchospasm in children 12 years of age and older is based on one single-dose crossover study in 24 adults and adolescents with exercise-induced bronchospasm comparing doses of 180 mcg with placebo [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
The safety of albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol in children 4 to 11 years of age is based on one 3-week clinical trial in 50 patients 4 to 11 years of age with asthma using the same formulation of albuterol as in albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol comparing doses of 180 mcg four times daily with placebo. The effectiveness of albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol in children 4 to 11 years of age is extrapolated from clinical trials in patients 12 years of age and older with asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm, based on data from a single-dose study comparing the bronchodilatory effect of albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol 90 mcg and 180 mcg with placebo in 55 patients with asthma and a 3-week clinical trial using the same formulation of albuterol as in albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol in 95 asthmatic children 4 to 11 years of age comparing a dose of 180 mcg albuterol four times daily with placebo [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. The safety and effectiveness of albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol in pediatric patients below the age of 4 years have not been established.
Clinical studies of albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4, 5.7)].
All beta2 -adrenergic agonists, including albuterol, are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
The expected symptoms with overdosage are those of excessive beta-adrenergic stimulation and/or occurrence or exaggeration of any of the symptoms listed under ADVERSE REACTIONS, e.g., seizures, angina, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia with rates up to 200 beats per minute, arrhythmias, nervousness, headache, tremor, dry mouth, palpitation, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, malaise, and insomnia.
Hypokalemia may also occur. As with all sympathomimetic medications, cardiac arrest and even death may be associated with abuse of albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol.
Treatment consists of discontinuation of albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol together with appropriate symptomatic therapy. The judicious use of a cardioselective beta-receptor blocker may be considered, bearing in mind that such medication can produce bronchospasm. There is insufficient evidence to determine if dialysis is beneficial for overdosage of albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol.
The oral median lethal dose of albuterol sulfate in mice is greater than 2,000 mg/kg (approximately 6,800 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m2 basis and approximately 3,200 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for children on a mg/m2 basis). In mature rats, the subcutaneous median lethal dose of albuterol sulfate is approximately 450 mg/kg (approximately 3,000 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m2 basis and approximately 1,400 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for children on a mg/m2 basis). In young rats, the subcutaneous median lethal dose is approximately 2,000 mg/kg (approximately 14,000 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m2 basis and approximately 6,400 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for children on a mg/m2 basis). The inhalation median lethal dose has not been determined in animals.
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