ALBUTEROL SULFATE — albuterol sulfate solution
Aurobindo Pharma Limited
Albuterol sulfate inhalation solution is a sterile, clear, colorless solution of the sulfate salt of racemic albuterol, albuterol sulfate. Albuterol sulfate is a relatively selective beta2-adrenergic bronchodilator (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). The chemical name for albuterol sulfate is α1 [(tert-butylamino) methyl]-4-hydroxy-m-xylene-α,α’-diol sulfate (2:1) (salt), and its established chemical structure is as follows:
Albuterol sulfate inhalation solution is supplied in two strengths in unit dose vials. Each unit dose vial contains either 0.75 mg of albuterol sulfate (equivalent to 0.63 mg of albuterol) or 1.50 mg of albuterol sulfate (equivalent to 1.25 mg of albuterol) with sodium chloride and sulfuric acid in a 3-mL isotonic, sterile, aqueous solution. Sodium chloride is added to adjust isotonicity of the solution and sulfuric acid is added to adjust pH of the solution to 3.5 (see HOW SUPPLIED).
Albuterol sulfate inhalation solution does not require dilution prior to administration by nebulization. For albuterol sulfate inhalation solution, like all other nebulized treatments, the amount delivered to the lungs will depend on patient factors, the jet nebulizer utilized, and compressor performance. Using the Pari LC PlusTM nebulizer (with face mask or mouthpiece) connected to a Pari PRONEBTM compressor, under in vitro conditions, the mean delivered dose from the mouth piece (% nominal dose) was approximately 43% of albuterol (1.25 mg strength) and 39% of albuterol (0.63 mg strength) at a mean flow rate of 3.6 L/min. The mean nebulization time was 15 minutes or less. Albuterol sulfate inhalation solution should be administered from a jet nebulizer at an adequate flow rate, via a mouthpiece or face mask (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
The prime action of beta-adrenergic drugs is to stimulate adenyl cyclase, the enzyme which catalyzes the formation of cyclic-3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The cyclic AMP thus formed mediates the cellular responses. In vitro studies and in vivo pharmacologic studies have demonstrated that albuterol has a preferential effect on beta2-adrenergic receptors compared with isoproterenol. While it is recognized that beta2-adrenergic receptors are the predominant receptors in bronchial smooth muscle, recent data indicate that 10% to 50% of the beta- receptors in the human heart may be beta2-receptors. The precise function of these receptors, however, is not yet established. Controlled clinical studies and other clinical experience have shown that inhaled albuterol, like other beta-adrenergic agonist drugs, can produce a significant cardiovascular effect in some patients, as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure, symptoms, and/or electrocardiographic changes. Albuterol is longer acting than isoproterenol in most patients by any route of administration because it is not a substrate for the cellular uptake processes for catecholamines nor for catechol-O-methyl transferase.
Pharmacokinetics: Studies in asthmatic patients have shown that less than 20% of a single albuterol dose was absorbed following either intermittent positive-pressure breathing (IPPB) or nebulizer administration; the remaining amount was recovered from the nebulizer and apparatus, and expired air. Most of the absorbed dose was recovered in urine collected during the 24 hours after drug administration. Following oral administration of 4 mg albuterol, the elimination half-life was five to six hours. Following a 3 mg dose of nebulized albuterol in adults, the mean maximum albuterol plasma level at 0.5 hours was 2.1 ng/mL (range, 1.4 to 3.2 ng/mL). The pharmacokinetics of albuterol following administration of 0.63 mg or 1.25 mg albuterol sulfate inhalation solution by nebulization have not been determined in children 2 to 12 years old.
Animal Pharmacology/Toxicology: Intravenous studies in rats with albuterol sulfate have demonstrated that albuterol crosses the blood-brain barrier and reaches brain concentrations amounting to approximately 5% of plasma concentrations. In structures outside the blood-brain barrier (pineal and pituitary glands), albuterol concentrations were found to be 100 times those found in whole brain.
Studies in laboratory animals (minipigs, rodents, and dogs) have demonstrated the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death (with histologic evidence of myocardial necrosis) when beta-agonists and methylxanthines are administered concurrently. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.
Clinical Trials: The safety and efficacy of albuterol sulfate was evaluated in a 4-week, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in 349 children 6 to 12 years of age with mild-to-moderate asthma (mean baseline FEV1 60% to 70% of predicted). Approximately half of the patients were also receiving inhaled corticosteroids. Patients were randomized to receive albuterol sulfate inhalation solution 0.63 mg, albuterol sulfate inhalation solution 1.25 mg, or placebo three times a day administered via a Pari LC PlusTM nebulizer and a Pari PRONEBTM compressor. Racemic albuterol, delivered by a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) metered dose inhaler (MDI) or nebulized, was used on an as-needed basis as the rescue medication.
Efficacy, as measured by the mean percent change from baseline in the area under the 6-hour curve for FEV1 , was demonstrated for both active treatment regimens (n=112 [1.25 mg group] and n=110 [0.63 mg group]) compared with placebo (n=110) on day 1 and day 28. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the mean percentage change from pre-dose FEV1 on day 1 and day 28, respectively. The mean baseline FEV1 for all patients was 1.49 L.
The onset of a 15% increase in FEV1 over baseline for both doses of albuterol sulfate was seen at 30 minutes (the first post-dose assessment). The mean time to peak effect was approximately 30 to 60 minutes for both doses on day 1 and after 4 weeks of treatment. The mean duration of effect, as measured by a >15% increase from baseline in FEV1 , was approximately 2.5 hours for both doses on day 1 and approximately 2 hours for both doses after 4 weeks of treatment. In some patients, the duration of effect was as long as 6 hours.
Albuterol sulfate inhalation solution is indicated for the relief of bronchospasm in patients 2 to 12 years of age with asthma (reversible obstructive airway disease).
Albuterol sulfate is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any of its components.
Paradoxical Bronchospasm: As with other inhaled beta-adrenergic agonists, albuterol sulfate can produce paradoxical bronchospasm, which may be life threatening. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs, albuterol sulfate should be discontinued immediately and alternative therapy instituted. It should be noted that paradoxical bronchospasm, when associated with inhaled formulations, frequently occurs with the first use of a new canister or vial.
Use of Anti-Inflammatory Agents: The use of beta-adrenergic bronchodilators alone may not be adequate to control asthma in many patients. Early consideration should be given to adding anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., corticosteroids).
Deterioration of Asthma: Asthma may deteriorate acutely over a period of hours or chronically over several days or longer. If the patient needs more doses of albuterol sulfate than usual, this may be a marker of destabilization of asthma and requires reevaluation of the patient and the treatment regimen, giving special consideration of the possible need for anti-inflammatory treatment (e.g., corticosteroids).
Fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs and with the home use of nebulizers. It is, therefore, essential that the physician instruct the patient in the need for further evaluation, if his/her asthma becomes worse.
Cardiovascular Effects: Albuterol sulfate, like other beta-adrenergic agonists, can produce a clinically significant cardiovascular effect in some patients as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure, and/or symptoms. Although such effects are uncommon for albuterol sulfate at recommended doses, if they occur, the drug may need to be discontinued. In addition, beta-agonists have been reported to produce ECG changes, such as flattening of the T- wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Therefore, albuterol sulfate like all other sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension.
Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions: Immediate hypersensitivity reactions may occur after administration of albuterol as demonstrated by rare cases of urticaria, angioedema, rash, bronchospasm, and oropharyngeal edema.
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.