Albuterol Sulfate HFA

ALBUTEROL SULFATE HFA- albuterol sulfate aerosol, metered
A-S Medication Solutions

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Bronchospasm

Albuterol Sulfate HFA Inhalation Aerosol is indicated for the treatment or prevention of bronchospasm in patients aged 4 years and older with reversible obstructive airway disease.

1.2 Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

Albuterol Sulfate HFA is indicated for the prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm in patients aged 4 years and older.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Bronchospasm

For treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm or prevention of symptoms associated with bronchospasm, the usual dosage for adults and children is 2 inhalations repeated every 4 to 6 hours; in some patients, 1 inhalation every 4 hours may be sufficient. More frequent administration or a greater number of inhalations is not recommended.

2.2 Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

For prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm, the usual dosage for adults and children aged 4 years and older is 2 inhalations 15 to 30 minutes before exercise.

2.3 Administration Information

Albuterol Sulfate HFA should be administered by the orally inhaled route only.

Priming

Priming Albuterol Sulfate HFA is essential to ensure appropriate albuterol content in each actuation. Prime Albuterol Sulfate HFA before using for the first time, when the inhaler has not been used for more than 2 weeks, or when the inhaler has been dropped. To prime Albuterol Sulfate HFA, release 4 sprays into the air away from the face, shaking well before each spray.

Cleaning

To ensure proper dosing and to prevent actuator orifice blockage, wash the actuator with warm water and let it air-dry completely at least once a week.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Inhalation aerosol: Blue plastic inhaler with a blue cap containing a pressurized metered-dose aerosol canister containing 200 metered inhalations and fitted with a counter. Each actuation delivers 108 mcg of albuterol sulfate (90 mcg of albuterol base) from the mouthpiece.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Albuterol Sulfate HFA is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any of the ingredients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Description (11)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Paradoxical Bronchospasm

Albuterol Sulfate HFA can produce paradoxical bronchospasm, which may be life threatening. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs following dosing with Albuterol Sulfate HFA, it should be discontinued immediately and alternative therapy should be instituted. It should be recognized that paradoxical bronchospasm, when associated with inhaled formulations, frequently occurs with the first use of a new canister.

5.2 Deterioration of Asthma

Asthma may deteriorate acutely over a period of hours or chronically over several days or longer. If the patient needs more doses of Albuterol Sulfate HFA than usual, this may be a marker of destabilization of asthma and requires reevaluation of the patient and treatment regimen, giving special consideration to the possible need for anti-inflammatory treatment, e.g., corticosteroids.

5.3 Use of Anti-inflammatory Agents

The use of beta-adrenergic agonist bronchodilators alone may not be adequate to control asthma in many patients. Early consideration should be given to adding anti-inflammatory agents, e.g., corticosteroids, to the therapeutic regimen.

5.4 Cardiovascular Effects

Albuterol Sulfate HFA, like all other beta2 -adrenergic agonists, can produce clinically significant cardiovascular effects in some patients such as changes in pulse rate or blood pressure. If such effects occur, Albuterol Sulfate HFA may need to be discontinued. In addition, beta-agonists have been reported to produce electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, such as flattening of the T wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression. The clinical relevance of these findings is unknown. Therefore, Albuterol Sulfate HFA, like all other sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with underlying cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension.

5.5 Do Not Exceed Recommended Dose

Fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs in patients with asthma. The exact cause of death is unknown, but cardiac arrest following an unexpected development of a severe acute asthmatic crisis and subsequent hypoxia is suspected.

5.6 Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions

Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., urticaria, angioedema, rash, bronchospasm, hypotension), including anaphylaxis, may occur after administration of Albuterol Sulfate HFA [see Contraindications (4)].

5.7 Coexisting Conditions

Albuterol Sulfate HFA, like other sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with convulsive disorders, hyperthyroidism, or diabetes mellitus and in patients who are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Large doses of intravenous albuterol have been reported to aggravate preexisting diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis.

5.8 Hypokalemia

Beta-adrenergic agonist medicines may produce significant hypokalemia in some patients, possibly through intracellular shunting, which has the potential to produce adverse cardiovascular effects [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)]. The decrease in serum potassium is usually transient, not requiring supplementation.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

Use of Albuterol Sulfate HFA may be associated with the following:

Paradoxical bronchospasm [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Cardiovascular effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
Immediate hypersensitivity reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
Hypokalemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The safety data described below reflects exposure to albuterol sulfate HFA in 248 subjects treated with albuterol sulfate HFA in 3 placebo-controlled clinical trials of 2 to 12 weeks’ duration. The data from adults and adolescents is based upon 2 clinical trials in which 202 subjects with asthma aged 12 years and older were treated with albuterol sulfate HFA 2 inhalations 4 times daily for 12 weeks’ duration. The adult/adolescent population was 92 female, 110 male and 163 white, 19 black, 18 Hispanic, 2 other. The data from pediatric subjects are based upon 1 clinical trial in which 46 subjects with asthma aged 4 to 11 years were treated with albuterol sulfate HFA 2 inhalations 4 times daily for 2 weeks’ duration. The population was 21 female, 25 male and 25 white, 17 black, 3 Hispanic, 1 other.

Adult and Adolescent Subjects Aged 12 Years and Older

The two 12-week, randomized, double-blind trials in 610 adult and adolescent subjects with asthma that compared albuterol sulfate HFA, a CFC 11/12-propelled albuterol inhaler, and an HFA-134a placebo inhaler. Overall, the incidence and nature of the adverse reactions reported for albuterol sulfate HFA and a CFC 11/12‑propelled albuterol inhaler were comparable. Table 1 lists the incidence of all adverse reactions (whether considered by the investigator to be related or unrelated to drug) from these trials that occurred at a rate of ≥3% in the group treated with albuterol sulfate HFA and more frequently in the group treated with albuterol sulfate HFA than in the HFA-134a placebo inhaler group.

Table 1. Adverse Reactions with Albuterol Sulfate HFA with ≥3% Incidence and More Common than Placebo in Adult and Adolescent Subjects

Adverse Reaction

Percent of Subjects

Albuterol Sulfate HFA

(n = 202)

%

CFC 11/12-Propelled

Albuterol Inhaler

(n = 207)

%

Placebo
HFA-134a

(n = 201)

%

Ear, nose, and throat

Throat irritation

10

6

7

Upper respiratory inflammation

5

5

2

Lower respiratory

Viral respiratory infections

7

4

4

Cough

5

2

2

Musculoskeletal

Musculoskeletal pain

5

5

4

Adverse reactions reported by <3% of the adult and adolescent subjects receiving albuterol sulfate HFA and by a greater proportion of subjects receiving albuterol sulfate HFA than receiving HFA-134a placebo inhaler and that have the potential to be related to albuterol sulfate HFA include diarrhea, laryngitis, oropharyngeal edema, cough, lung disorders, tachycardia, and extrasystoles. Palpitations and dizziness have also been observed with albuterol sulfate HFA.

Pediatric Subjects Aged 4 to 11 Years

Results from the 2-week clinical trial in pediatric subjects with asthma aged 4 to 11 years showed that this pediatric population had an adverse reaction profile similar to that of the adult and adolescent populations.

Three trials have been conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of albuterol sulfate HFA in subjects between birth and 4 years of age. The results of these trials did not establish the efficacy of albuterol sulfate HFA in this age group [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. Since the efficacy of albuterol sulfate HFA has not been demonstrated in children between birth and 48 months of age, the safety of albuterol sulfate HFA in this age-group cannot be established. However, the safety profile observed in the pediatric population younger than 4 years was comparable to that observed in the older pediatric subjects and in adults and adolescents. Where adverse reaction incidence rates were greater in subjects younger than 4 years compared with older subjects, the higher incidence rates were noted in all treatment arms, including placebo. These adverse reactions included upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, pyrexia, and tachycardia.

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