Aliskiren (Page 3 of 8)
Creatine Kinase: Increases in creatine kinase of greater than 300% were recorded in about 1% of aliskiren monotherapy patients versus 0.5% of placebo patients. Five cases of creatine kinase rises, 3 leading to discontinuation and 1 diagnosed as subclinical rhabdomyolysis, and another as myositis, were reported as adverse events with aliskiren use in the clinical trials. No cases were associated with renal dysfunction.
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been reported in aliskiren postmarketing experience. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Hypersensitivity: anaphylactic reactions and angioedema requiring airway management and hospitalization
Hepatic enzyme increase with clinical symptoms of hepatic dysfunction
Severe cutaneous adverse reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
Cyclosporine: Avoid coadministration of cyclosporine with aliskiren [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Itraconazole: Avoid coadministration of itraconazole with aliskiren [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) including selective Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (COX-2 inhibitors): In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, coadministration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors with agents that affect the RAAS, including aliskiren, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving aliskiren and NSAID therapy.
The antihypertensive effect of aliskiren may be attenuated by NSAIDs.
Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS): The concomitant use of aliskiren with other agents acting on the RAAS such as ACEIs or ARBs is associated with an increased risk of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Most patients receiving the combination of two drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. In general, avoid combined use of aliskiren with ACE inhibitors or ARBs, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/min. Monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes in patients taking aliskiren and other agents that affect the RAAS [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4, 5.5, 5.6)].
The concomitant use of aliskiren with an ARB or an ACEI in diabetic patients is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4)].
Furosemide: Oral coadministration of aliskiren and furosemide reduced exposure to furosemide. Monitor diuretic effects when furosemide is coadministered with aliskiren.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Aliskiren can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death [see Clinical Considerations]. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Aliskiren as soon as possible.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major malformations and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4%, and 15- 20%, respectively.
Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk
Hypertension in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, and delivery complications (e.g., need for cesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage). Hypertension increases the fetal risk for intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine death. Pregnant women with hypertension should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy can result in the following: reduced fetal renal function leading to anuria and renal failure, oligohydramnios, fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations, including skull hypoplasia, hypotension, and death. In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus.
In patients taking Aliskiren during pregnancy, perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of gestation. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to Aliskiren for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. If oliguria or hypotension occur in neonates with a history of in utero exposure to aliskiren, support blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and substituting for disordered renal function.
In developmental toxicity studies, pregnant rats and rabbits received oral aliskiren hemifumarate during organogenesis at doses up to 20 and 7 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) based on body surface area (mg/m2), respectively, in rats and rabbits. (Actual animal doses were up to 600 mg/kg/day in rats and up to 100 mg/kg/day in rabbits.) No teratogenicity was observed; however, fetal birth weight was decreased in rabbits at doses 3.2 times the MRHD based on body surface area (mg/m2). Aliskiren was present in placentas, amniotic fluid and fetuses of pregnant rabbits.
There is no information regarding the presence of aliskiren in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including hypotension, hyperkalemia and renal impairment in nursing infants, advise a nursing woman that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Aliskiren.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Aliskiren is contraindicated in patients less than 2 years of age [see Contraindications (4)].
Aliskiren is indicated for treatment of hypertension in pediatric patients 6 years of age and older weighing 50 kg or more. The safety and effectiveness of aliskiren have been established in pediatric patients 6 years of age and older weighing 20 kg or more, but Aliskiren is not approved in patients 6 years of age and older weighing 20 kg to less than 50 kg because of the lack of an appropriate dosage form. Use of Aliskiren in pediatric patients 6 years and older is supported by evidence from a pharmacokinetic trial and two randomized, double-blind clinical trials in pediatric patients with hypertension 6 years to 17 years of age weighing 20 kg or more [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Clinical Studies (14.4)].
The safety and effectiveness of Aliskiren have not been established in pediatric patients younger than 6 years of age and patients less than 20 kg. Avoid use in patients 2 years to less than 6 years and patients weighing less than 20 kg due to the limited information about aliskiren metabolism and exposures in this age group. No data are available in pediatric patients weighing less than 20 kg or in pediatric patients with a glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m2.
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