Alogliptin (Page 2 of 8)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during the postmarketing use of alogliptin tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Acute Pancreatitis, hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash, urticaria and severe cutaneous adverse reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, hepatic enzyme elevations, fulminant hepatic failure, severe and disabling arthralgia, bullous pemphigoid, rhabdomyolysis, and diarrhea, constipation, nausea, and ileus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6, 5.7)].

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Alogliptin tablets are primarily renally excreted. Cytochrome (CYP) P450-related metabolism is negligible. No significant drug-drug interactions were observed with the CYP-substrates or inhibitors tested or with renally excreted drugs [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Limited data with alogliptin in pregnant women are not sufficient to determine a drug-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriage. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations].

No adverse developmental effects were observed when alogliptin was administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at exposures 180 and 149 times the 25 mg clinical dose, respectively, based on plasma drug exposure (AUC) [see Data].

The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6-10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with a HbA1c >7 and has been reported to be as high as 20-25% in women with HbA1c >10. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk

Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, still birth and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, still birth, and macrosomia related morbidity.

Data

Animal Data

Alogliptin administered to pregnant rabbits and rats during the period of organogenesis did not cause adverse developmental effects at doses of up to 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, or 149 times and 180 times, the 25 mg clinical dose, respectively, based on plasma drug exposure (AUC).Placental transfer of alogliptin into the fetus was observed following oral dosing to pregnant rats.

No adverse developmental outcomes were observed in offspring when alogliptin was administered to pregnant rats during gestation and lactation at doses up to 250 mg/kg (~ 95 times the 25 mg clinical dose, based on AUC).

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

There is no information regarding the presence of alogliptin in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Alogliptin is present in rat milk: however, due to species specific differences in lactation physiology, animal lactation data may not reliably predict levels in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for alogliptin tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from alogliptin tablets or from the underlying maternal condition.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of alogliptin tablets in pediatric patients have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Of the total number of patients (N=9052) in clinical safety and efficacy studies treated with alogliptin tablets, 2257 (24.9%) patients were 65 years and older and 386 (4.3%) patients were 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between patients 65 years and over and younger patients. While this clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

8.6 Renal Impairment

A total of 602 patients with moderate renal impairment (eGFR ≥30 and <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 4 patients with severe renal impairment/end-stage renal disease (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 or <15 mL/min/1.73 m2 , respectively) at baseline were treated with alogliptin tablets in clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes. Reductions in HbA1c were generally similar in this subgroup of patients. The overall incidence of adverse reactions was generally balanced between alogliptin tablets and placebo treatments in this subgroup of patients.

In the EXAMINE trial of high CV risk type 2 diabetes patients, 694 patients had moderate renal impairment and 78 patients had severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease at baseline. The overall incidences of adverse reactions, serious adverse reactions and adverse reactions leading to study drug discontinuation were generally similar between the treatment groups.

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

No dose adjustments are required in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Grade A and B) based on insignificant change in systemic exposures (e.g., AUC) compared to subjects with normal hepatic function in a pharmacokinetic study. Alogliptin tablets have not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Grade C). Use caution when administering alogliptin tablets to patients with liver disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

10 OVERDOSAGE

The highest doses of alogliptin tablets administered in clinical trials were single doses of 800 mg to healthy subjects and doses of 400 mg once daily for 14 days to patients with type 2 diabetes (equivalent to 32 times and 16 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg, respectively). No serious adverse reactions were observed at these doses.

In the event of an overdose, it is reasonable to institute the necessary clinical monitoring and supportive therapy as dictated by the patient’s clinical status. Per clinical judgment, it may be reasonable to initiate removal of unabsorbed material from the gastrointestinal tract.

Alogliptin is minimally dialyzable; over a three-hour hemodialysis session, approximately 7% of the drug was removed. Therefore, hemodialysis is unlikely to be beneficial in an overdose situation. It is not known if alogliptin tablets are dialyzable by peritoneal dialysis.

11 DESCRIPTION

Alogliptin tablets contain the active ingredient alogliptin, which is a selective, orally bioavailable inhibitor of the enzymatic activity of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4).

Chemically, alogliptin is prepared as a benzoate salt, which is identified as 2-({6-[(3R)-3-aminopiperidin-1-yl]-3-methyl-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl}methyl)benzonitrile monobenzoate. It has a molecular formula of C18 H21 N5 O2 ∙C7 H6 O2 and a molecular weight of 461.51 daltons. The structural formula is:

Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

Alogliptin benzoate is a white to off-white crystalline powder containing one asymmetric carbon in the aminopiperidine moiety. It is soluble in dimethylsulfoxide, sparingly soluble in water and methanol, slightly soluble in ethanol and very slightly soluble in octanol and isopropyl acetate.

Each alogliptin tablet contains 34 mg, 17 mg or 8.5 mg alogliptin benzoate, which is equivalent to 25 mg, 12.5 mg or 6.25 mg, respectively, of alogliptin and the following inactive ingredients: mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, croscarmellose sodium and magnesium stearate. In addition, the film coating contains the following inactive ingredients: hypromellose, titanium dioxide, ferric oxide (red or yellow) and polyethylene glycol, and is marked with printing ink (Gray F1).

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