Increased concentrations of the incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are released into the bloodstream from the small intestine in response to meals. These hormones cause insulin release from the pancreatic beta cells in a glucose-dependent manner but are inactivated by the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) enzyme within minutes. GLP-1 also lowers glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells, reducing hepatic glucose production. In patients with type 2 diabetes, concentrations of GLP-1 are reduced but the insulin response to GLP-1 is preserved. Alogliptin is a DPP-4 inhibitor that slows the inactivation of the incretin hormones, thereby increasing their bloodstream concentrations and reducing fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations in a glucose-dependent manner in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Alogliptin selectively binds to and inhibits DPP-4 but not DPP-8 or DPP-9 activity in vitro at concentrations approximating therapeutic exposures.
Single-dose administration of alogliptin tablets to healthy subjects resulted in a peak inhibition of DPP-4 within two to three hours after dosing. The peak inhibition of DPP-4 exceeded 93% across doses of 12.5 mg to 800 mg. Inhibition of DPP-4 remained above 80% at 24 hours for doses greater than or equal to 25 mg. Peak and total exposure over 24 hours to active GLP-1 were three to four fold greater with alogliptin tablets (at doses of 25 to 200 mg) than placebo. In a 16 week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, alogliptin tablets 25 mg demonstrated decreases in postprandial glucagon while increasing postprandial active GLP-1 levels compared to placebo over an eight hour period following a standardized meal. It is unclear how these findings relate to changes in overall glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, alogliptin tablets 25 mg demonstrated decreases in two hour postprandial glucose compared to placebo (-30 mg/dL versus 17 mg/dL, respectively).
Multiple-dose administration of alogliptin to patients with type 2 diabetes also resulted in a peak inhibition of DPP-4 within one to two hours and exceeded 93% across all doses (25 mg, 100 mg and 400 mg) after a single dose and after 14 days of once-daily dosing. At these doses of alogliptin tablets, inhibition of DPP-4 remained above 81% at 24 hours after 14 days of dosing.
In a randomized, placebo-controlled, four-arm, parallel-group study, 257 subjects were administered either alogliptin 50 mg, alogliptin 400 mg, moxifloxacin 400 mg or placebo once daily for a total of seven days. No increase in corrected QT (QTc) was observed with either dose of alogliptin. At the 400 mg dose, peak alogliptin plasma concentrations were 19 fold higher than the peak concentrations following the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg.
The pharmacokinetics of alogliptin tablets has been studied in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes. After administration of single, oral doses up to 800 mg in healthy subjects, the peak plasma alogliptin concentration (median Tmax ) occurred one to two hours after dosing. At the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg, alogliptin tablets were eliminated with a mean terminal half-life (T1/2 ) of approximately 21 hours.
After multiple-dose administration up to 400 mg for 14 days in patients with type 2 diabetes, accumulation of alogliptin was minimal with an increase in total [e.g., area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC)] and peak (i.e., Cmax ) alogliptin exposures of 34% and 9%, respectively. Total and peak exposure to alogliptin increased proportionally across single doses and multiple doses of alogliptin ranging from 25 mg to 400 mg. The intersubject coefficient of variation for alogliptin AUC was 17%. The pharmacokinetics of alogliptin tablets were also shown to be similar in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes.
The absolute bioavailability of alogliptin tablets is approximately 100%. Administration of alogliptin tablets with a high-fat meal results in no significant change in total and peak exposure to alogliptin. Alogliptin tablets may therefore be administered with or without food.
Following a single, 12.5 mg intravenous infusion of alogliptin to healthy subjects, the volume of distribution during the terminal phase was 417 L, indicating that the drug is well distributed into tissues.
Alogliptin is 20% bound to plasma proteins.
Alogliptin does not undergo extensive metabolism and 60% to 71% of the dose is excreted as unchanged drug in the urine.
Two minor metabolites were detected following administration of an oral dose of [14 C] alogliptin, N -demethylated, M-I (less than 1% of the parent compound), and N -acetylated alogliptin, M-II (less than 6% of the parent compound). M-I is an active metabolite and is an inhibitor of DPP-4 similar to the parent molecule; M-II does not display any inhibitory activity toward DPP-4 or other DPP-related enzymes. In vitro data indicate that CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 contribute to the limited metabolism of alogliptin.
Alogliptin exists predominantly as the (R)-enantiomer (more than 99%) and undergoes little or no chiral conversion in vivo to the (S)-enantiomer. The (S)-enantiomer is not detectable at the 25 mg dose.
The primary route of elimination of [14 C] alogliptin-derived radioactivity occurs via renal excretion (76%) with 13% recovered in the feces, achieving a total recovery of 89% of the administered radioactive dose. The renal clearance of alogliptin (9.6 L/hr) indicates some active renal tubular secretion and systemic clearance was 14.0 L/hr.
A single-dose, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of alogliptin 50 mg in patients with chronic renal impairment compared with healthy subjects.
In patients with mild renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CrCl] ≥60 to <90 mL/min), an approximate 1.2 fold increase in plasma AUC of alogliptin was observed. Because increases of this magnitude are not considered clinically relevant, dose adjustment for patients with mild renal impairment is not recommended.
In patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl ≥30 to <60 mL/min), an approximate two fold increase in plasma AUC of alogliptin was observed. To maintain similar systemic exposures of alogliptin tablets to those with normal renal function, the recommended dose is 12.5 mg once daily in patients with moderate renal impairment.
In patients with severe renal impairment (CrCl ≥15 to <30 mL/min) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (CrCl <15 mL/min or requiring dialysis), an approximate three and four fold increase in plasma AUC of alogliptin were observed, respectively. Dialysis removed approximately 7% of the drug during a three hour dialysis session. Alogliptin tablets may be administered without regard to the timing of the dialysis. To maintain similar systemic exposures of alogliptin tablets to those with normal renal function, the recommended dose is 6.25 mg once daily in patients with severe renal impairment, as well as in patients with ESRD requiring dialysis.
Total exposure to alogliptin was approximately 10% lower and peak exposure was approximately 8% lower in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Grade B) compared to healthy subjects. The magnitude of these reductions is not considered to be clinically meaningful. Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Grade C) have not been studied. Use caution when administering alogliptin tablets to patients with liver disease [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6) and Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
No dose adjustment of alogliptin tablets is necessary based on gender. Gender did not have any clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of alogliptin.
No dose adjustment of alogliptin tablets is necessary based on age. Age did not have any clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of alogliptin.
Studies characterizing the pharmacokinetics of alogliptin in pediatric patients have not been performed.
No dose adjustment of alogliptin tablets is necessary based on race. Race (White, Black, and Asian) did not have any clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of alogliptin.
In Vitro Assessment of Drug Interactions
In vitro studies indicate that alogliptin is neither an inducer of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, nor an inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 at clinically relevant concentrations.
In Vivo Assessment of Drug Interactions
Effects of Alogliptin on the Pharmacokinetics of Other Drugs
In clinical studies, alogliptin did not meaningfully increase the systemic exposure to the following drugs that are metabolized by CYP isozymes or excreted unchanged in urine (Figure 1). No dose adjustment of alogliptin tablets is recommended based on results of the described pharmacokinetic studies.
Figure 1. Effect of Alogliptin on the Pharmacokinetic Exposure to Other Drugs
*Warfarin was given once daily at a stable dose in the range of 1 mg to 10 mg. Alogliptin had no significant effect on the prothrombin time (PT) or International Normalized Ratio (INR).
**Caffeine (1A2 substrate), tolbutamide (2C9 substrate), dextromethorphan (2D6 substrate), midazolam (3A4 substrate) and fexofenadine (P-gp substrate) were administered as a cocktail.
Effects of Other Drugs on the Pharmacokinetics of Alogliptin
There are no clinically meaningful changes in the pharmacokinetics of alogliptin when alogliptin tablets are administered concomitantly with the drugs described below (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Effect of Other Drugs on the Pharmacokinetic Exposure of Alogliptin
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