Alogliptin and Metformin Hydrochloride

ALOGLIPTIN AND METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE- alogliptin benzoate and metformin hydrochloride tablet, film coated
Perrigo New York Inc

WARNING: LACTIC ACIDOSIS

Postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. The onset of metformin-associated lactic acidosis is often subtle, accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, and abdominal pain. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate levels (greater than 5 mmol/L), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio; and metformin plasma levels generally greater than 5 mcg/mL [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (e.g., carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as topiramate), age 65 years old or greater, having a radiological study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (e.g., acute congestive heart failure), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment.

Steps to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis in these high risk groups are provided in the Full Prescribing Information [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Interactions (7), and Use in Specific Populations (8.6, 8.7)].

If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, immediately discontinue alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets and institute general supportive measures in a hospital setting. Prompt hemodialysis is recommended [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Monotherapy and Combination Therapy

Alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets are indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus when treatment with both alogliptin and metformin is appropriate [see Clinical Studies (14)].

Important Limitations of Use

Alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets are not indicated for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus or diabetic ketoacidosis, as it would not be effective in these settings.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Recommendations for All Patients

  • Healthcare providers should individualize the starting dose of alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets based on the patient’s current regimen.
  • Alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets should be taken twice daily with food with gradual dose escalation to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI) side effects due to metformin. Alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets must not be split before swallowing.
  • Dosing may be adjusted based on effectiveness and tolerability while not exceeding the maximum recommended daily dose of 25 mg alogliptin and 2000 mg metformin HCl.
  • The following doses are available:
    12.5 mg alogliptin and 500 mg metformin HCl
    12.5 mg alogliptin and 1000 mg metformin HCl

2.2 Recommendations for Use in Renal Impairment

Assess renal function prior to initiation of alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets and periodically thereafter.

Alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets is contraindicated in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets are not recommended in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 because these patients require a lower daily dosage of alogliptin than what is available in the fixed combination alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets product.

2.3 Discontinuation for Iodinated Contrast Imaging Procedures

Discontinue alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets at the time of, or prior to, an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 ; in patients with a history of liver disease, alcoholism or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Re-evaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure; restart alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets if renal function is stable [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

  • 12.5 mg/500 mg tablets are pale yellow, oblong, film-coated tablets with “12.5/500” debossed on one side and “322M” debossed on the other side
  • 12.5 mg/1000 mg tablets are pale yellow, oblong, film-coated tablets with “12.5/1000” debossed on one side and “322M” debossed on the other side

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets are contraindicated in patients with:

  • Severe renal impairment (eGFR below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
  • Acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis should be treated with insulin.
  • History of a serious hypersensitivity reaction to alogliptin or metformin, components of alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets, such as anaphylaxis, angioedema or severe cutaneous adverse reactions.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Lactic Acidosis

Lactic Acidosis

There have been postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis, including fatal cases. These cases had a subtle onset and were accompanied by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, or increased somnolence; however, hypothermia, hypotension and resistant bradyarrhythmias have occurred with severe acidosis. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate concentrations (greater than 5 mmol/L), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), and an increased lactate:pyruvate ratio; metformin plasma levels generally greater than 5 mcg/mL. Metformin decreases liver uptake of lactate increasing lactate blood levels which may increase the risk of lactic acidosis, especially in patients at risk.

If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, general supportive measures should be instituted promptly in a hospital setting, along with immediate discontinuation of alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets. In alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets-treated patients with a diagnosis or strong suspicion of lactic acidosis, prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and remove accumulated metformin (metformin hydrochloride is dialyzable, with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions). Hemodialysis has often resulted in reversal of symptoms and recovery.

Educate patients and their families about the symptoms of lactic acidosis and if these symptoms occur instruct them to discontinue alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets and report these symptoms to their healthcare provider.

For each of the known and possible risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis, recommendations to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis are provided below:

Renal Impairment

The postmarketing metformin-associated lactic acidosis cases primarily occurred in patients with significant renal impairment. The risk of metformin accumulation and metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the severity of renal impairment because metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney. Clinical recommendations based upon the patient’s renal function include [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]:

  • Before initiating alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets, obtain an eGFR.
  • Alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets is contraindicated in patients with an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 [see Contraindications (4)].
  • Alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets is not recommended in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 because these patients require a lower dosage of alogliptin than what is available in the fixed combination alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets product.
  • Obtain an eGFR at least annually in all patients taking alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets. In patients at increased risk for the development of renal impairment (e.g., the elderly), renal function should be assessed more frequently.

Drug Interactions

The concomitant use of alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets with specific drugs may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis: those that impair renal function, result in significant hemodynamic change, interfere with acid-base balance or increase metformin accumulation [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Therefore, consider more frequent monitoring of patients.

Age 65 or Greater

The risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the patient’s age because elderly patients have a greater likelihood of having hepatic, renal, or cardiac impairment than younger patients. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

Radiological Studies with Contrast

Administration of intravascular iodinated contrast agents in metformin-treated patients has led to an acute decrease in renal function and the occurrence of lactic acidosis. Stop alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets at the time of, or prior to, an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 ; in patients with a history of hepatic impairment, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Re-evaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure, and restart alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets if renal function is stable.

Surgery and Other Procedures

Withholding of food and fluids during surgical or other procedures may increase the risk for volume depletion, hypotension and renal impairment. Alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets should be temporarily discontinued while patients have restricted food and fluid intake.

Hypoxic States

Several of the postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis occurred in the setting of acute congestive heart failure (particularly when accompanied by hypoperfusion and hypoxemia). Cardiovascular collapse (shock), acute myocardial infarction, sepsis, and other conditions associated with hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may also cause prerenal azotemia. When such events occur, discontinue alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets.

Excessive Alcohol Intake

Alcohol potentiates the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism and this may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets.

Hepatic Impairment

Patients with hepatic impairment have developed with cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. This may be due to impaired lactate clearance resulting in higher lactate blood levels. Therefore, avoid use of alogliptin and metformin HCl tablets in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease.

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