There have been postmarketing reports of fatal and nonfatal hepatic failure in patients taking pioglitazone or alogliptin, although some of the reports contain insufficient information necessary to establish the probable cause [see Adverse Reactions (6.3)].
In glycemic control trials of alogliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations greater than three times the upper limit of normal (ULN) were reported in 1.3% of patients treated with alogliptin 25 mg and 1.7% of patients treated with active comparators or placebo. In the EXAMINE trial (a cardiovascular outcomes trial of patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular (CV) risk), increases in serum alanine aminotransferase three times the upper limit of the reference range occurred in 2.4% of patients treated with alogliptin and in 1.8% of patients treated with placebo.
Patients with type 2 diabetes may have fatty liver disease or cardiac disease with episodic congestive heart failure, both of which may cause liver test abnormalities, and they may also have other forms of liver disease, many of which can be treated or managed. Therefore, obtaining a liver test panel (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin) and assessing the patient is recommended before initiating alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets therapy. In patients with abnormal liver tests, alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets should be initiated with caution.
Measure liver tests promptly in patients who report symptoms that may indicate liver injury, including fatigue, anorexia, right upper abdominal discomfort, dark urine or jaundice. In this clinical context, if the patient is found to have abnormal liver tests (ALT greater than three times the upper limit of the reference range), alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets treatment should be interrupted and an investigation done to establish the probable cause. Alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets should not be restarted in these patients without another explanation for the liver test abnormalities.
In controlled clinical trials, edema was reported more frequently in patients treated with pioglitazone than in placebo-treated patients and is dose-related [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. In postmarketing experience, reports of new onset or worsening of edema have been received.
Alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets should be used with caution in patients with edema. Because thiazolidinediones, including pioglitazone, can cause fluid retention, which can exacerbate or lead to congestive heart failure, alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets should be used with caution in patients at risk for congestive heart failure. Patients treated with alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets should be monitored for signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure [see Boxed Warning , Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].
In PROactive (the Prospective Pioglitazone Clinical Trial in Macrovascular Events), 5238 patients with type 2 diabetes and a history of macrovascular disease were randomized to pioglitazone (N=2605), force-titrated up to 45 mg daily or placebo (N=2633) in addition to standard of care. During a mean follow-up of 34.5 months, the incidence of bone fracture in females was 5.1% (44/870) for pioglitazone versus 2.5% (23/905) for placebo. This difference was noted after the first year of treatment and persisted during the course of the study. The majority of fractures observed in female patients were nonvertebral fractures including lower limb and distal upper limb. No increase in the incidence of fracture was observed in men treated with pioglitazone (1.7%) versus placebo (2.1%). The risk of fracture should be considered in the care of patients, especially female patients, treated with pioglitazone and attention should be given to assessing and maintaining bone health according to current standards of care.
Tumors were observed in the urinary bladder of male rats in the two-year carcinogenicity study [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)]. In addition, during the three year PROactive clinical trial, 14 patients out of 2605 (0.54%) randomized to pioglitazone and 5 out of 2633 (0.19%) randomized to placebo were diagnosed with bladder cancer. After excluding patients in whom exposure to study drug was less than one year at the time of diagnosis of bladder cancer, there were six (0.23%) cases on pioglitazone and two (0.08%) cases on placebo. After completion of the trial, a large subset of patients was observed for up to ten additional years, with little additional exposure to pioglitazone. During the 13 years of both PROactive and observational follow-up, the occurrence of bladder cancer did not differ between patients randomized to pioglitazone or placebo (HR =1.00; [95% CI: 0.59–1.72]).
Findings regarding the risk of bladder cancer in patients exposed to pioglitazone vary among observational studies; some did not find an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with pioglitazone, while others did.
A large prospective ten year observational cohort study conducted in the United States found no statistically significant increase in the risk of bladder cancer in diabetic patients ever exposed to pioglitazone, compared to those never exposed to pioglitazone (HR =1.06 [95% CI 0.89–1.26]).
A retrospective cohort study conducted with data from the United Kingdom found a statistically significant association between ever exposure to pioglitazone and bladder cancer (HR: 1.63; [95% CI: 1.22–2.19]).
Associations between cumulative dose or cumulative duration of exposure to pioglitazone and bladder cancer were not detected in some studies including the ten year observational study in the U.S., but were in others. Inconsistent findings and limitations inherent in these and other studies preclude conclusive interpretations of the observational data.
Pioglitazone may be associated with an increase in the risk of urinary bladder tumors. There are insufficient data to determine whether pioglitazone is a tumor promoter for urinary bladder tumors.
Consequently, alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets should not be used in patients with active bladder cancer and the benefits of glycemic control versus unknown risks for cancer recurrence with alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets should be considered in patients with a prior history of bladder cancer.
Insulin and insulin secretagogues, such as sulfonylureas, are known to cause hypoglycemia. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets.
Macular edema has been reported in postmarketing experience in diabetic patients who were taking pioglitazone or another thiazolidinedione. Some patients presented with blurred vision or decreased visual acuity, but others were diagnosed on routine ophthalmologic examination.
Most patients had peripheral edema at the time macular edema was diagnosed. Some patients had improvement in their macular edema after discontinuation of their thiazolidinedione.
Patients with diabetes should have regular eye exams by an ophthalmologist according to current standards of care. Patients with diabetes who report any visual symptoms should be promptly referred to an ophthalmologist, regardless of the patient’s underlying medications or other physical findings [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
There have been postmarketing reports of severe and disabling arthralgia in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. The time to onset of symptoms following initiation of drug therapy varied from one day to years. Patients experienced relief of symptoms upon discontinuation of the medication. A subset of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms when restarting the same drug or a different DPP-4 inhibitor. Consider DPP-4 inhibitors as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate.
Postmarketing cases of bullous pemphigoid requiring hospitalization have been reported with DPP-4 inhibitor use. In reported cases, patients typically recovered with topical or systemic immunosuppressive treatment and discontinuation of the DPP-4 inhibitor. Tell patients to report development of blisters or erosions while receiving alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets. If bullous pemphigoid is suspected, alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets should be discontinued and referral to a dermatologist should be considered for diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.