Pioglitazone may cause decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit. In placebo-controlled monotherapy trials, mean hemoglobin values declined by 2% to 4% in patients treated with pioglitazone compared with a mean change in hemoglobin of -1% to +1% in placebo-treated patients. These changes primarily occurred within the first four to 12 weeks of therapy and remained relatively constant thereafter. These changes may be related to increased plasma volume associated with pioglitazone therapy and are not likely to be associated with any clinically significant hematologic effects.
During protocol-specified measurement of serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in pioglitazone clinical trials, an isolated elevation in CPK to greater than ten times the upper limit of the reference range was noted in nine (0.2%) patients treated with pioglitazone (values of 2150 to 11400 IU/L) and in no comparator-treated patients. Six of these nine patients continued to receive pioglitazone, two patients were noted to have the CPK elevation on the last day of dosing and one patient discontinued pioglitazone due to the elevation. These elevations resolved without any apparent clinical sequelae. The relationship of these events to pioglitazone therapy is unknown.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during the postmarketing use of alogliptin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Acute pancreatitis, hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash, urticaria and severe cutaneous adverse reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, hepatic enzyme elevations, fulminant hepatic failure, severe and disabling arthralgia and bullous pemphigoid, rhabdomyolysis, diarrhea, constipation, nausea and ileus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.10, 5.11)].
The following adverse reactions have been identified during the postmarketing use of pioglitazone. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
New onset or worsening diabetic macular edema with decreased visual acuity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
Fatal and nonfatal hepatic failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Postmarketing reports of congestive heart failure have been reported in patients treated with pioglitazone, both with and without previously known heart disease and both with and without concomitant insulin administration.
In postmarketing experience, there have been reports of unusually rapid increases in weight and increases in excess of that generally observed in clinical trials. Patients who experience such increases should be assessed for fluid accumulation and volume-related events such as excessive edema and congestive heart failure [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Alogliptin is primarily renally excreted. Cytochrome (CYP) P450-related metabolism is negligible. No significant drug-drug interactions were observed with the CYP-substrates or inhibitors tested or with renally excreted drugs [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
An inhibitor of CYP2C8 (e.g., gemfibrozil) significantly increases the exposure (area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]) and half-life of pioglitazone. Therefore, the maximum recommended dose of pioglitazone is 15 mg daily if used in combination with gemfibrozil or other strong CYP2C8 inhibitors [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
An inducer of CYP2C8 (e.g., rifampin) may significantly decrease the exposure (AUC) of pioglitazone. Therefore, if an inducer of CYP2C8 is started or stopped during treatment with alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets, changes in diabetes treatment may be needed based on clinical response without exceeding the maximum recommended daily dose of 45 mg for pioglitazone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
A decrease in the exposure of pioglitazone and its active metabolites were noted with concomitant administration of pioglitazone and topiramate [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The clinical relevance of this decrease is unknown; however, when pioglitazone and topiramate are used concomitantly, monitor patients for adequate glycemic control.
Limited data with alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets in pregnant women are not sufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriage. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations].
In animal reproduction studies, no adverse developmental effects were observed when pioglitazone was administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at exposures up to 5 and 35 times the 45 mg clinical dose, respectively, based on body surface area. No adverse developmental effects were observed when alogliptin was administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at exposures 180 and 149 times the 25 mg clinical dose, respectively, based on plasma drug exposure (AUC) [see Data].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6-10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with a HbA1c >7 and has been reported to be as high as 20-25% in women with a HbA1c >10. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, still birth and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, still birth, and macrosomia related morbidity.
Alogliptin and Pioglitazone
Co-administration of 100 mg/kg alogliptin and 40 mg/kg pioglitazone (39 and 10 times the 25 mg and 45 mg clinical doses, respectively, based on body surface area) to pregnant rats during organogenesis slightly augmented pioglitazone-related fetal effects of delayed development and reduced fetal weights but did not result in embryofetal mortality or teratogenicity.
Alogliptin administered to pregnant rabbits and rats during the period of organogenesis did not cause adverse developmental effects at doses of up to 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, or 149 times and 180 times, the 25 mg clinical dose, respectively, based on plasma drug exposure (AUC). Placental transfer of alogliptin into the fetus was observed following oral dosing to pregnant rats.
No adverse developmental outcomes were observed in offspring when alogliptin was administered to pregnant rats during gestation and lactation at doses up to 250 mg/kg (~95 times the 25 mg clinical dose, based on AUC).
Pioglitazone administered to pregnant rats during organogenesis did not cause adverse developmental effects at a dose of 20 mg/kg (~5 times the 45 mg clinical dose), but delayed parturition and reduced embryofetal viability at 40 and 80 mg/kg, or ≥9 times the 45 mg clinical dose, by body surface area. In pregnant rabbits administered pioglitazone during organogenesis, no adverse developmental effects were observed at 80 mg/kg (~35 times the 45 mg clinical dose), but reduced embryofetal viability at 160 mg/kg, or ~69 times the 45 mg clinical dose, by body surface area. When pregnant rats received pioglitazone during late gestation and lactation, delayed postnatal development, attributed to decreased body weight, occurred in offspring at maternal doses of 10 mg/kg and above or ≥2 times the 45 mg clinical dose, by body surface area.
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