Alogliptin and Pioglitazone (Page 7 of 11)

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Absorption and Bioavailability

Alogliptin and Pioglitazone

In bioequivalence studies of alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets, the area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax ) of both the alogliptin and the pioglitazone component following a single dose of the combination tablet (12.5 mg/15 mg or 25 mg/45 mg) were bioequivalent to alogliptin (12.5 mg or 25 mg) concomitantly administered with pioglitazone (15 mg or 45 mg respectively) tablets under fasted conditions in healthy subjects.

Administration of alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets 25 mg/45 mg with food resulted in no significant change in overall exposure of alogliptin or pioglitazone. Alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets may therefore be administered with or without food.


The absolute bioavailability of alogliptin is approximately 100%. Administration of alogliptin with a high-fat meal results in no significant change in total and peak exposure to alogliptin. Alogliptin may therefore be administered with or without food.


Following oral administration of pioglitazone hydrochloride, peak concentrations of pioglitazone were observed within two hours. Food slightly delays the time to peak serum concentration (Tmax ) to three to four hours but does not alter the extent of absorption (AUC).



Following a single, 12.5 mg intravenous infusion of alogliptin to healthy subjects, the volume of distribution during the terminal phase was 417 L, indicating that the drug is well distributed into tissues.

Alogliptin is 20% bound to plasma proteins.


The mean apparent Vd /F of pioglitazone following single-dose administration is 0.63 ± 0.41 (mean ± SD) L/kg of body weight. Pioglitazone is extensively protein bound (>99%) in human serum, principally to serum albumin. Pioglitazone also binds to other serum proteins, but with lower affinity. Metabolites M-III and M-IV also are extensively bound (>98%) to serum albumin.



Alogliptin does not undergo extensive metabolism and 60% to 71% of the dose is excreted as unchanged drug in the urine.

Two minor metabolites were detected following administration of an oral dose of [14 C] alogliptin, N -demethylated, M-I (less than 1% of the parent compound), and N -acetylated alogliptin, M-II (less than 6% of the parent compound). M-I is an active metabolite and is an inhibitor of DPP-4 similar to the parent molecule; M-II does not display any inhibitory activity toward DPP-4 or other DPP-related enzymes. In vitro data indicate that CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 contribute to the limited metabolism of alogliptin.

Alogliptin exists predominantly as the (R)-enantiomer (more than 99%) and undergoes little or no chiral conversion in vivo to the (S)-enantiomer. The (S)-enantiomer is not detectable at the 25 mg dose.


Pioglitazone is extensively metabolized by hydroxylation and oxidation; the metabolites also partly convert to glucuronide or sulfate conjugates. Metabolites M-III and M-IV are the major circulating active metabolites in humans. Following once-daily administration of pioglitazone, steady-state serum concentrations of both pioglitazone and its major active metabolites, M-III (keto derivative of pioglitazone) and M-IV (hydroxyl derivative of pioglitazone), are achieved within seven days. At steady-state, M-III and M-IV reach serum concentrations equal to or greater than that of pioglitazone. At steady-state, in both healthy volunteers and patients with type 2 diabetes, pioglitazone comprises approximately 30% to 50% of the peak total pioglitazone serum concentrations (pioglitazone plus active metabolites) and 20% to 25% of the total AUC.

Maximum serum concentration (Cmax ), AUC and trough serum concentrations (Cmin ) for pioglitazone and M-III and M-IV, increased proportionally with administered doses of 15 mg and 30 mg per day.

In vitro data demonstrate that multiple CYP isoforms are involved in the metabolism of pioglitazone. The cytochrome P450 isoforms involved are CYP2C8 and, to a lesser degree, CYP3A4 with additional contributions from a variety of other isoforms, including the mainly extrahepatic CYP1A1. In vivo studies of pioglitazone in combination with gemfibrozil, a strong CYP2C8 inhibitor, showed that pioglitazone is a CYP2C8 substrate [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Drug Interactions (7)]. Urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratios measured in patients treated with pioglitazone showed that pioglitazone is not a strong CYP3A4 enzyme inducer.

Excretion and Elimination


The primary route of elimination of [14 C] alogliptin derived radioactivity occurs via renal excretion (76%) with 13% recovered in the feces, achieving a total recovery of 89% of the administered radioactive dose. The renal clearance of alogliptin (9.6 L/hr) indicates some active renal tubular secretion and systemic clearance was 14.0 L/hr.


Following oral administration, approximately 15% to 30% of the pioglitazone dose is recovered in the urine. Renal elimination of pioglitazone is negligible, and the drug is excreted primarily as metabolites and their conjugates. It is presumed that most of the oral dose is excreted into the bile either unchanged or as metabolites and eliminated in the feces.

The mean serum half-life of pioglitazone and its metabolites (M-III and M-IV) range from three to seven hours and 16 to 24 hours, respectively. Pioglitazone has an apparent clearance, CL/F, calculated to be 5 to 7 L/hr.

Special Populations

Renal Impairment


A single-dose, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of alogliptin 50 mg in patients with chronic renal impairment compared with healthy subjects.

In patients with mild renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CrCl] ≥60 to <90 mL/min), an approximate 1.2 fold increase in plasma AUC of alogliptin was observed. Because increases of this magnitude are not considered clinically relevant, dose adjustment for patients with mild renal impairment is not recommended.

In patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl ≥30 to <60 mL/min), an approximate two fold increase in plasma AUC of alogliptin was observed. To maintain similar systemic exposures of alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets to those with normal renal function, the recommended dose of alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets is 12.5 mg/15 mg, 12.5 mg/30 mg or 12.5 mg/45 mg once daily in patients with moderate renal impairment.

In patients with severe renal impairment (CrCl ≥15 to <30 mL/min) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (CrCl <15 mL/min or requiring dialysis), an approximate three and four fold increase in plasma AUC of alogliptin were observed, respectively. Dialysis removed approximately 7% of the drug during a three hour dialysis session. Alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets are not recommended for patients with severe renal impairment or ESRD. Coadministration of pioglitazone and alogliptin 6.25 mg once daily based on individual requirements may be considered in these patients.


The serum elimination half-life of pioglitazone, M-III and M-IV remains unchanged in patients with moderate (creatinine clearance 30 to 50 mL/min) to severe (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min) renal impairment when compared to subjects with normal renal function. Therefore no dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment is required.

Hepatic Impairment


Total exposure to alogliptin was approximately 10% lower and peak exposure was approximately 8% lower in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Grade B) compared to healthy subjects. The magnitude of these reductions is not considered to be clinically meaningful. Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Grade C) have not been studied. Use caution when administering alogliptin and pioglitazone tablets to patients with liver disease [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7) and Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].


Compared with healthy controls, subjects with impaired hepatic function (Child-Pugh Grade B and C) have an approximate 45% reduction in pioglitazone and total pioglitazone (pioglitazone, M-III and M-IV) mean peak concentrations but no change in the mean AUC values. Therefore, no dose adjustment in patients with hepatic impairment is required.

There are postmarketing reports of liver failure with pioglitazone and clinical trials have generally excluded patients with serum ALT >2.5 times the upper limit of the reference range. Use caution in patients with liver disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].



No dose adjustment of alogliptin is necessary based on gender. Gender did not have any clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of alogliptin.


The mean Cmax and AUC values of pioglitazone were increased 20% to 60% in women compared to men. In controlled clinical trials, A1C decreases from baseline were generally greater for females than for males (average mean difference in A1C 0.5%). Because therapy should be individualized for each patient to achieve glycemic control, no dose adjustment is recommended based on gender alone.



No dose adjustment of alogliptin is necessary based on age. Age did not have any clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of alogliptin.


In healthy elderly subjects, peak serum concentrations of pioglitazone and total pioglitazone are not significantly different, but AUC values are approximately 21% higher than those achieved in younger subjects. The mean terminal half-life values of pioglitazone were also longer in elderly subjects (about ten hours) as compared to younger subjects (about seven hours). These changes were not of a magnitude that would be considered clinically relevant.


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