In addition to events reported in clinical trials, the following events have been identified during use of alosetron hydrochloride in clinical practice. Because they were reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to alosetron hydrochloride.
Gastrointestinal: Impaction, perforation, ulceration, small bowel mesenteric ischemia.
In vivo data suggest that alosetron is primarily metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, with minor contributions from CYP3A4 and CYP2C9. Therefore, inducers or inhibitors of these enzymes may change the clearance of alosetron.
Fluvoxamine is a known strong inhibitor of CYP1A2 and also inhibits CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. In a pharmacokinetic study, 40 healthy female subjects received fluvoxamine in escalating doses from 50 to 200 mg/ day for 16 days, with coadministration of alosetron 1 mg on the last day. Fluvoxamine increased mean alosetron plasma concentrations (AUC) approximately 6-fold and prolonged the half-life by approximately 3 fold. Concomitant administration of alosetron and fluvoxamine is contraindicated [see Contraindications ( 4.3)] .
Concomitant administration of alosetron and moderate CYP1A2 inhibitors, including quinolone antibiotics and cimetidine, has not been evaluated, but should be avoided unless clinically necessary because of similar potential drug interactions.
Ketoconazole is a known strong inhibitor of CYP3A4. In a pharmacokinetic study, 38 healthy female subjects received ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily for 7 days, with coadministration of alosetron 1 mg on the last day. Ketoconazole increased mean alosetron plasma concentrations (AUC) by 29%. Caution should be used when alosetron and ketoconazole are administered concomitantly. Coadministration of alosetron and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors such as clarithromycin, telithromycin, protease inhibitors, voriconazole, and itraconazole has not been evaluated but should be undertaken with caution because of similar potential drug interactions. The effect of induction or inhibition of other pathways on exposure to alosetron and its metabolites is not known.
In vitro human liver microsome studies and an in vivo metabolic probe study demonstrated that alosetron did not inhibit CYP enzymes 3A4, 2C9, or 2C19. In vitro at total drug concentrations 27-fold higher than peak plasma concentrations observed with the 1 mg dose, alosetron inhibited CYP enzymes 1A2 (60%) and 2E1 (50%). In an in vivo metabolic probe study, alosetron did not inhibit CYP2E1 but did produce 30% inhibition of both CYP1A2 and N-acetyltransferase. Although not studied with alosetron, inhibition of N-acetyltransferase may have clinically relevant consequences for drugs such as isoniazid, procainamide, and hydralazine. The effect on CYP1A2 was explored further in a clinical interaction study with theophylline and no effect on metabolism was observed. Another study showed that alosetron had no clinically significant effect on plasma concentrations of the oral contraceptive agents ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (CYP3A4 substrates). A clinical interaction study was also conducted with alosetron and the CYP3A4 substrate cisapride. No significant effects on cisapride metabolism or QT interval were noted. The effects of alosetron on monoamine oxidases and on intestinal first pass secondary to high intraluminal concentrations have not been examined. Based on the above data from in vitro and in vivo studies, it is unlikely that alosetron will inhibit the hepatic metabolic clearance of drugs metabolized by the CYP enzymes 2C9, 2C19, or 2E1.
Alosetron does not appear to induce the major cytochrome P450 drug-metabolizing enzyme 3A. Alosetron also does not appear to induce CYP enzymes 2E1 or 2C19. It is not known whether alosetron might induce other enzymes.
The available data with alosetron hydrochloride use in pregnant women are insufficient to draw conclusions about any drug-associated risks for major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. In animal reproduction studies, no adverse developmental effects were observed with oral administration of alosetron in rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses 160 to 240 times, respectively, the recommended human dosage (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and miscarriage is 15 to 20%, respectively.
No adverse developmental effects were observed with oral administration of alosetron during the period of organogenesis to pregnant rats at doses up to 40 mg/kg/day (about 160 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) or to pregnant rabbits at doses up to 30 mg/kg/day (about 240 times the recommended daily human dose based on body surface area).
There are no data regarding the presence of alosetron in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Alosetron and/or metabolites of alosetron are present in the breast milk of lactating rats. When a drug is present in animal milk, it is likely that the drug will be present in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for alosetron hydrochloride and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from alosetron hydrochloride or from the underlying maternal condition.
Monitor infants exposed to alosetron hydrochloride through breast milk for severe constipation and blood in stools.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Use of alosetron hydrochloride is not recommended in the pediatric population, based upon the risk of serious complications of constipation and ischemic colitis in adults.
In some studies in healthy men or women, plasma concentrations were elevated by approximately 40% in individuals 65 years and older compared to young adults [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1)] . However, this effect was not consistently observed in men.
Postmarketing experience suggests that elderly patients may be at greater risk for complications of constipation therefore, appropriate caution and follow-up should be exercised if alosetron hydrochloride is prescribed for these patients [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1)] .
Due to the extensive hepatic metabolism of alosetron, increased exposure to alosetron and/or its metabolites is likely to occur in patients with hepatic impairment. Alosetron should not be used in patients with severe hepatic impairment and should be used with caution in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment.
A single 1 mg oral dose of alosetron was administered to 1 female and 5 male patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score of 7 to 9) and to 1 female and 2 male patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score of >9). In comparison with historical data from healthy subjects, patients with severe hepatic impairment displayed higher systemic exposure to alosetron. The female with severe hepatic impairment displayed approximately 14-fold higher exposure, while the female with moderate hepatic impairment displayed approximately 1.6-fold higher exposure, than healthy females. Due to the small number of subjects and high intersubject variability in the pharmacokinetic findings, no definitive quantitative conclusions can be made. However, due to the greater exposure to alosetron in the female with severe hepatic impairment, alosetron should not be used in females with severe hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.2), Contraindications ( 4)] .
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