ALPRAZOLAM- alprazolam tablet, extended release
Zydus Pharmaceuticals USA Inc.
The chemical name of alprazolam is 8-chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-4H -s -triazolo [4,3-α] [1,4] benzodiazepine. The molecular formula is C17 H13 ClN4 which corresponds to a molecular weight of 308.76.
The structural formula is represented to the right:
Alprazolam, USP is a white to off-white crystalline powder, which is freely soluble in chloroform, soluble in alcohol, sparingly soluble in acetone, slightly soluble in ethyl acetate and practically insoluble in water.
Each alprazolam extended-release tablet intended for oral administration contains 0.5 mg or 1 mg or 2 mg or 3 mg of alprazolam. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate and magnesium stearate. Additionally, each 1 mg tablet contains D&C yellow No. 10 and 3 mg tablet contains lake green blend.
CNS agents of the 1,4 benzodiazepine class presumably exert their effects by binding at stereospecific receptors at several sites within the central nervous system. Their exact mechanism of action is unknown. Clinically, all benzodiazepines cause a dose-related central nervous system depressant activity varying from mild impairment of task performance to hypnosis.
Following oral administration of alprazolam (immediate-release) tablets, alprazolam is readily absorbed. Peak concentrations in the plasma occur in one to two hours following administration. Plasma levels are proportional to the dose given; over the dose range of 0.5 to 3.0 mg, peak levels of 8.0 to 37 ng/mL were observed. Using a specific assay methodology, the mean plasma elimination half-life of alprazolam has been found to be about 11.2 hours (range: 6.3-26.9 hours) in healthy adults.
The mean absolute bioavailability of alprazolam from alprazolam extended-release tablets is approximately 90%, and the relative bioavailability compared to alprazolam tablets is 100%. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of alprazolam following administration of alprazolam extended-release tablets are similar to that for alprazolam tablets, with the exception of a slower rate of absorption. The slower absorption rate results in a relatively constant concentration that is maintained between 5 and 11 hours after the dosing. The pharmacokinetics of alprazolam and two of its major active metabolites (4-hydroxyalprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam) are linear, and concentrations are proportional up to the recommended maximum daily dose of 10 mg given once daily. Multiple dose studies indicate that the metabolism and elimination of alprazolam are similar for the immediate-release and the extended-release products.
Food has a significant influence on the bioavailability of alprazolam extended-release tablets. A high-fat meal given up to 2 hours before dosing with alprazolam extended-release tablets increased the mean Cmax by about 25%. The effect of this meal on Tmax depended on the timing of the meal, with a reduction in Tmax by about 1/3 for subjects eating immediately before dosing and an increase in Tmax by about 1/3 for subjects eating 1 hour or more after dosing. The extent of exposure (AUC) and elimination half-life (t ½ ) were not affected by eating.
There were significant differences in absorption rate for the alprazolam extended-release tablet, depending on the time of day administered, with the Cmax increased by 30% and the Tmax decreased by an hour following dosing at night, compared to morning dosing.
The apparent volume of distribution of alprazolam is similar for alprazolam extended-release tablets and alprazolam tablets. In vitro , alprazolam is bound (80%) to human serum protein. Serum albumin accounts for the majority of the binding.
Alprazolam is extensively metabolized in humans, primarily by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), to two major metabolites in the plasma: 4-hydroxyalprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam. A benzophenone derived from alprazolam is also found in humans. Their half-lives appear to be similar to that of alprazolam. The pharmacokinetic parameters at steady-state for the two hydroxylated metabolites of alprazolam (4-hydroxyalprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam) were similar for alprazolam tablets and alprazolam extended-release tablets, indicating that the metabolism of alprazolam is not affected by absorption rate. The plasma concentrations of 4-hydroxyalprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam relative to unchanged alprazolam concentration after both alprazolam extended-release tablets and alprazolam tablets were always less than 10% and 4%, respectively. The reported relative potencies in benzodiazepine receptor binding experiments and in animal models of induced seizure inhibition are 0.20 and 0.66, respectively, for 4-hydroxyalprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam. Such low concentrations and the lesser potencies of 4-hydroxyalprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam suggest that they are unlikely to contribute much to the pharmacological effects of alprazolam. The benzophenone metabolite is essentially inactive.
Alprazolam and its metabolites are excreted primarily in the urine. The mean plasma elimination half-life of alprazolam following administration of alprazolam extended-release tablet ranges from 10.7-15.8 hours in healthy adults.
While pharmacokinetic studies have not been performed in special populations with alprazolam extended-release tablets, the factors (such as age, gender, hepatic or renal impairment) that would affect the pharmacokinetics of alprazolam after the administration of alprazolam tablets would not be expected to be different with the administration of alprazolam extended-release tablets.
Changes in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of benzodiazepines have been reported in a variety of disease states including alcoholism, impaired hepatic function, and impaired renal function. Changes have also been demonstrated in geriatric patients. A mean half-life of alprazolam of 16.3 hours has been observed in healthy elderly subjects (range: 9.0-26.9 hours, n=16) compared to 11.0 hours (range: 6.3-15.8 hours, n=16) in healthy adult subjects. In patients with alcoholic liver disease the half-life of alprazolam ranged between 5.8 and 65.3 hours (mean: 19.7 hours, n=17) as compared to between 6.3 and 26.9 hours (mean=11.4 hours, n=17) in healthy subjects. In an obese group of subjects the half-life of alprazolam ranged between 9.9 and 40.4 hours (mean=21.8 hours, n=12) as compared to between 6.3 and 15.8 hours (mean=10.6 hours, n=12) in healthy subjects.
Because of its similarity to other benzodiazepines, it is assumed that alprazolam undergoes transplacental passage and that it is excreted in human milk.
Maximal concentrations and half-life of alprazolam are approximately 15% and 25% higher in Asians compared to Caucasians.
The pharmacokinetics of alprazolam after administration of the alprazolam extended-release tablet in pediatric patients have not been studied.
Gender has no effect on the pharmacokinetics of alprazolam.
Alprazolam concentrations may be reduced by up to 50% in smokers compared to non-smokers.
Compounds that are potent inhibitors of CYP3A would be expected to increase plasma alprazolam concentrations. Drug products that have been studied in vivo , along with their effect on increasing alprazolam AUC, are as follows: ketoconazole, 3.98 fold; itraconazole, 2.70 fold; nefazodone, 1.98 fold; fluvoxamine, 1.96 fold; and erythromycin, 1.61 fold (see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions).
CYP3A inducers would be expected to decrease alprazolam concentrations and this has been observed in vivo. The oral clearance of alprazolam (given in a 0.8 mg single dose) was increased from 0.90±0.21 mL/min/kg to 2.13±0.54 mL/min/kg and the elimination t½ was shortened (from 17.1±4.9 to 7.7±1.7 h) following administration of 300 mg/day carbamazepine for 10 days (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions). However, the carbamazepine dose used in this study was fairly low compared to the recommended doses (1000-1200 mg/day); the effect at usual carbamazepine doses is unknown.
The ability of alprazolam to induce or inhibit human hepatic enzyme systems has not been determined. However, this is not a property of benzodiazepines in general. Further, alprazolam did not affect the prothrombin or plasma warfarin levels in male volunteers administered sodium warfarin orally.
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