ALPRAZOLAM- alprazolam tablet
WARNING: RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH OPIOIDS; ABUSE, MISUSE, AND ADDICTION; and DEPENDENCE AND WITHDRAWAL REACTIONS
- Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Interactions (7.1)].
- The use of benzodiazepines, including alprazolam, exposes users to risks of abuse, misuse, and addiction, which can lead to overdose or death. Abuse and misuse of benzodiazepines commonly involve concomitant use of other medications, alcohol, and/or illicit substances, which is associated with an increased frequency of serious adverse outcomes. Before prescribing Alprazolam and throughout treatment, assess each patient’s risk for abuse, misuse, and addiction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
- The continued use of benzodiazepines, including alprazolam, may lead to clinically significant physical dependence. The risks of dependence and withdrawal increase with longer treatment duration and higher daily dose. Abrupt discontinuation or rapid dosage reduction of Alprazolam after continued use may precipitate acute withdrawal reactions, which can be life-threatening. To reduce the risk of withdrawal reactions, use a gradual taper to discontinue alprazolam or reduce the dosage [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Alprazolam is indicated for the:
- acute treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in adults.
- treatment of panic disorder (PD), with or without agoraphobia in adults.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Dosage in Generalized Anxiety Disorder
The recommended starting oral dosage of alprazolam for the acute treatment of patients with GAD is 0.25 mg to 0.5 mg administered three times daily. Depending upon the response, the dosage may be adjusted at intervals of every 3 to 4 days. The maximum recommended dosage is 4 mg daily (in divided doses).
Use the lowest possible effective dose and frequently assess the need for continued treatment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
2.2 Dosage in Panic Disorder
The recommended starting oral dosage of alprazolam for the treatment of PD is 0.5 mg three times daily. Depending on the response, the dosage may be increased at intervals of every 3 to 4 days in increments of no more than 1 mg per day.
Controlled trials of alprazolam in the treatment of panic disorder included dosages in the range of 1 mg to 10 mg daily. The mean dosage was approximately 5 mg to 6 mg daily. Occasional patients required as much as 10 mg per day.
For patients receiving doses greater than 4 mg per day, periodic reassessment and consideration of dosage reduction is advised. In a controlled postmarketing dose-response study, patients treated with doses of alprazolam greater than 4 mg per day for 3 months were able to taper to 50% of their total maintenance dose without apparent loss of clinical benefit.
The necessary duration of treatment for PD in patients responding to alprazolam is unknown. After a period of extended freedom from panic attacks, a carefully supervised tapered discontinuation may be attempted, but there is evidence that this may often be difficult to accomplish without recurrence of symptoms and/or the manifestation of withdrawal phenomena [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
2.3 Discontinuation or Dosage Reduction of Alprazolam
To reduce the risk of withdrawal reactions, use a gradual taper to discontinue Alprazolam or reduce the dosage. If a patient develops withdrawal reactions, consider pausing the taper or increasing the dosage to the previous tapered dosage level. Subsequently decrease the dosage more slowly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
Reduced the dosage by no more than 0.5 mg every 3 days. Some patients may benefit from an even more gradual discontinuation. Some patients may prove resistant to all discontinuation regimens.
In a controlled postmarketing discontinuation study of panic disorder patients which compared the recommended taper schedule with a slower taper schedule, no difference was observed between the groups in the proportion of patients who tapered to zero dose; however, the slower schedule was associated with a reduction in symptoms associated with a withdrawal syndrome.
2.4 Dosage Recommendations in Geriatric Patients
In geriatric patients, the recommended starting oral dosage of Alprazolam is 0.25 mg, given 2 or 3 times daily. This may be gradually increased if needed and tolerated. Geriatric patients may be especially sensitive to the effects of benzodiazepines. If adverse reactions occur at the recommended starting dosage, the dosage may be reduced [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
2.5 Dosage Recommendations in Patients with Hepatic Impairment
In patients with hepatic impairment, the recommended starting oral dosage of Alprazolam is 0.25 mg, given 2 or 3 times daily. This may be gradually increased if needed and tolerated. If adverse reactions occur at the recommended starting dose, the dosage may be reduced [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
2.6 Dosage Modifications for Drug Interactions
Alprazolam should be reduced to half of the recommended dosage when a patient is started on ritonavir and alprazolam together, or when ritonavir administered to a patient treated with alprazolam. Increase the alprazolam dosage to the target dose after 10 to 14 days of dosing ritonavir and alprazolam together. It is not necessary to reduce alprazolam dose in patients who have been taking ritonavir for more than 10 to 14 days.
Alprazolam is contraindicated with concomitant use of all strong CYP3A inhibitors, except ritonavir [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Alprazolam tablets are available as:
- 0.25 mg: white, oval, scored, imprinted “G3719”
- 0.5 mg: peach, oval, scored, imprinted “G3720”
- 1 mg: blue, oval, scored, imprinted “G3721”
- 2 mg: white, oblong, multi-scored, imprinted “G3722”
Alprazolam is contraindicated in patients:
- with known hypersensitivity to alprazolam or other benzodiazepines. Angioedema has been reported [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
- taking strong cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole), except ritonavir [see Dosage and Administration (2.6), Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Drug Interactions (7.1)]
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Risks from Concomitant Use with Opioids
Concomitant use of benzodiazepines, including alprazolam, and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioids alone. If a decision is made to prescribe alprazolam concomitantly with opioids, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use, and follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. In patients already receiving an opioid analgesic, prescribe a lower initial dose of alprazolam than indicated in the absence of an opioid and titrate based on clinical response. If an opioid is initiated in a patient already taking alprazolam, prescribe a lower initial dose of the opioid and titrate based upon clinical response.
Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when alprazolam is used with opioids. Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of concomitant use with the opioid have been determined [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.