AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE (Page 4 of 5)

Pediatric Use

The safety and efficacy of amantadine hydrochloride in newborn infants and infants below the age of 1 year have not been established.

Usage in the Elderly

Because amantadine hydrochloride is primarily excreted in the urine, it accumulates in the plasma and in the body when renal function declines. Thus, the dose of amantadine hydrochloride should be reduced in patients with renal impairment and in individuals who are 65 years of age or older. The dose of amantadine hydrochloride may need reduction in patients with congestive heart failure, peripheral edema, or orthostatic hypotension ( see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Adverse Reactions to AMANTADINE HYDROCHLORIDE

The adverse reactions reported most frequently at the recommended dose of amantadine hydrochloride (5 to 10%) are: nausea, dizziness (lightheadedness), and insomnia.

Less frequently (1 to 5%) reported adverse reactions are: depression, anxiety and irritability, hallucinations, confusion, anorexia, dry mouth, constipation, ataxia, livedo reticularis, peripheral edema, orthostatic hypotension, headache, somnolence, nervousness, dream abnormality, agitation, dry nose, diarrhea and fatigue.

Infrequently (0.1 to 1%) occurring adverse reactions are: congestive heart failure, psychosis, urinary retention, dyspnea, skin rash, vomiting, weakness, slurred speech, euphoria, thinking abnormality, amnesia, hyperkinesia, hypertension, decreased libido, and visual disturbance, including punctate subepithelial or other corneal opacity, corneal edema, decreased visual acuity, sensitivity to light, and optic nerve palsy.

Rare (less than 0.1%) occurring adverse reactions are: instances of convulsion, leukopenia, neutropenia, eczematoid dermatitis, oculogyric episodes, suicidal attempt, suicide, and suicidal ideation ( see WARNINGS).

Other adverse reactions reported during postmarketing experience with amantadine hydrochloride usage include:

Nervous System/Psychiatric

coma, stupor, delirium, hypokinesia, hypertonia, delusions, aggressive behavior, paranoid reaction, manic reaction, involuntary muscle contractions, gait abnormalities, paresthesia, EEG changes, and tremor. Abrupt discontinuation may also precipitate delirium, agitation, delusions, hallucinations, paranoid reaction, stupor, anxiety, depression and slurred speech;

Cardiovascular

cardiac arrest, arrhythmias including malignant arrhythmias, hypotension, and tachycardia;

Respiratory

acute respiratory failure, pulmonary edema, and tachypnea;

Gastrointestinal

dysphagia;

Hematologic

leukocytosis and agranulocytosis;

Special Senses

keratitis and mydriasis;

Skin and Appendages

pruritus and diaphoresis;

Miscellaneous

neuroleptic malignant syndrome ( see WARNINGS), allergic reactions including anaphylactic reactions, edema and fever.

Laboratory Tests

elevated: CPK, BUN, serum creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, LDH, bilirubin, GGT, SGOT, and SGPT.

OVERDOSAGE

Deaths have been reported from overdose with amantadine hydrochloride. The lowest reported acute lethal dose was 1 gram. Because some patients have attempted suicide by overdosing with amantadine hydrochloride, prescriptions should be written for the smallest quantity consistent with good patient management.

Acute toxicity may be attributable to the anticholinergic effects of amantadine hydrochloride. Drug overdose has resulted in cardiac, respiratory, renal or central nervous system toxicity. Cardiac dysfunction includes arrhythmia, tachycardia and hypertension. Pulmonary edema and respiratory distress (including adult respiratory distress syndrome — ARDS) have been reported; renal dysfunction including increased BUN, decreased creatinine clearance and renal insufficiency can occur. Central nervous system effects that have been reported include insomnia, anxiety, agitation, aggressive behavior, hypertonia, hyperkinesia, ataxia, gait abnormality, tremor, confusion, disorientation, depersonalization, fear, delirium, hallucinations, psychotic reactions, lethargy, somnolence and coma. Seizures may be exacerbated in patients with prior history of seizure disorders. Hyperthermia has also been observed in cases where a drug overdose has occurred.

There is no specific antidote for an overdose of amantadine hydrochloride. However, slowly administered intravenous physostigmine in 1 and 2 mg doses in an adult 2 at 1- to 2-hour intervals and 0.5 mg doses in a child 3 at 5- to 10-minute intervals up to a maximum of 2 mg/hour have been reported to be effective in the control of central nervous system toxicity caused by amantadine hydrochloride. For acute overdosing, general supportive measures should be employed along with immediate gastric lavage or induction of emesis. Fluids should be forced, and if necessary, given intravenously. The pH of the urine has been reported to influence the excretion rate of amantadine hydrochloride. Since the excretion rate of amantadine hydrochloride increases rapidly when the urine is acidic, the administration of urine acidifying drugs may increase the elimination of the drug from the body. The blood pressure, pulse, respiration and temperature should be monitored. The patient should be observed for hyperactivity and convulsions; if required, sedation, and anticonvulsant therapy should be administered. The patient should be observed for the possible development of arrhythmias and hypotension; if required, appropriate antiarrhythmic and antihypotensive therapy should be given. Electrocardiographic monitoring may be required after ingestion, since malignant tachyarrhythmias can appear after overdose.

Care should be exercised when administering adrenergic agents, such as isoproterenol, to patients with an amantadine hydrochloride overdose, since the dopaminergic activity of amantadine hydrochloride has been reported to induce malignant arrhythmias.

The blood electrolytes, urine pH and urinary output should be monitored. If there is no record of recent voiding, catheterization should be done.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The dose of amantadine hydrochloride may need reduction in patients with congestive heart failure, peripheral edema, orthostatic hypotension, or impaired renal function. ( see Dosage for Impaired Renal Function).

Dosage for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Uncomplicated Influenza A Virus Illness

Adult

The adult daily dosage of amantadine hydrochloride is 200 mg (four teaspoonfuls of oral solution) as a single daily dose. The daily dosage may be split into two teaspoonfuls, (100 mg) of oral solution twice a day. If central nervous system effects develop in once-a-day dosage, a split dosage schedule may reduce such complaints. In persons 65 years of age or older, the daily dosage of amantadine hydrochloride is 100 mg.

A 100 mg daily dose has also been shown in experimental challenge studies to be effective as prophylaxis in healthy adults who are not at high risk for influenza-related complications. However, it has not been demonstrated that a 100 mg daily dose is as effective as a 200 mg daily dose for prophylaxis, nor has the 100 mg daily dose been studied in the treatment of acute influenza illness. In recent clinical trials, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) side effects associated with the 100 mg daily dose was at or near the level of placebo. The 100 mg dose is recommended for persons who have demonstrated intolerance to 200 mg of amantadine hydrochloride daily because of CNS or other toxicities.

Pediatric Patients

1 yr. to 9 yrs. of age

The total daily dose should be calculated on the basis of 2 to 4 mg/lb/day (4.4 to 8.8 mg/kg/day), but not to exceed 150 mg per day.

9 yrs. to 12 yrs. of age

The total daily dose is 200 mg given as two teaspoonfuls of oral solution twice a day. The 100 mg daily dose has not been studied in this pediatric population. Therefore, there are no data which demonstrate that this dose is as effective as or is safer than the 200 mg daily dose in this patient population.

Prophylactic dosing should be started in anticipation of an influenza A outbreak and before or after contact with individuals with influenza A virus respiratory tract illness.

Amantadine hydrochloride should be continued daily for at least 10 days following a known exposure. If amantadine hydrochloride is used chemoprophylactically in conjunction with inactivated influenza A virus vaccine until protective antibody responses develop, then it should be administered for 2 to 4 weeks after the vaccine has been given. When inactivated influenza A virus vaccine is unavailable or contraindicated, amantadine hydrochloride should be administered for the duration of known influenza A in the community because of repeated and unknown exposure.

Treatment of influenza A virus illness should be started as soon as possible, preferably within 24 to 48 hours after onset of signs and symptoms, and should be continued for 24 to 48 hours after the disappearance of signs and symptoms.

All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2022. All Rights Reserved.