AMERICAN COCKROACH — periplaneta americana injection, solution
Antigen Laboratories, Inc.
Allergenic extract is intended for use by, or under the guidance of, physicians who are experienced in the administration of allergenic extracts for diagnosis and/or immunotherapy and the emergency care of anaphylaxis. This extract is not directly interchangeable with other allergenic extracts. The initial dose must be based on skin testing as described in the “DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION” section of this insert. Patients switching from other types of extracts to Antigen Laboratories’ allergenic extracts should be started as if they were undergoing treatment for the first time. Patients being switched from one lot of extract to another from the same manufacturer should have the dose reduced by 75%.
Severe systemic reactions may occur with all allergenic extracts. In certain individuals, especially in steroid-dependent/unstable asthmatics, these life-threatening reactions may result in death. Patients should be observed for at least 20 minutes following allergenic extract injections. Treatment and emergency measures, as well as personnel trained in their use, must be available in the event of a life-threatening reaction. Sensitive patients may experience severe anaphylactic reactions resulting in respiratory obstruction, shock, coma and/or death. Report serious adverse events to MedWatch, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20852-9787, phone 1-800-FDA-1088.
Patients receiving beta-blockers may not be responsive to epinephrine or inhaled bronchodilators. Respiratory obstruction not responding to parenteral or inhaled bronchodilators may require theophylline, oxygen, intubation and the use of life support systems. Parenteral fluid and/or plasma expanders may be utilized for treatment of shock. Adrenocorticosteroids may be administered parenterally or intravenously. Refer to “WARNINGS”, “PRECAUTIONS” and “ADVERSE REACTIONS” sections below.
Antigen Laboratories’ allergenic extracts are manufactured from source material listed on the vial label. Lower concentrations (e.g. 1:50, 1:33, etc.) may be prepared either by dilution from a more concentrated stock or by direct extraction. The extract is a sterile solution containing extractables of source materials obtained from biological collecting and/or processing firms and Antigen Laboratories. All source materials are inspected by Antigen Laboratories’ technical personnel in accordance with 21 CFR 680.1 (b) (1). The route of administration for immunotherapy is subcutaneous. The routes of administration for diagnostic purposes are intradermal or prick-puncture of the skin.
Food allergenic extracts may be manufactured on a weight/volume (w/v) or volume/volume (v/v) basis. Food extracts made from dried raw material are extracted at 2-10% (1:50-1:10 w/v ratio) in extracting fluid containing 50% glycerine. Slurries of juicy fruits or vegetables (prepared with a minimum amount of water for injection) are combined with an equal volume of glycerine for a ration of 1:1 volume/volume (v/v). Sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate are added to the slurry and glycerine mixture. Fresh egg white extract is prepared by adding one part raw egg white to nine parts of extracting fluid (1:9 v/v).
Antigen E is considered the most important allergen of Short Ragweed pollen and is used for the standardization of Short Ragweed allergenic extracts. Stock mixtures containing Short Ragweed are analyzed for Antigen E content by radial immunodiffusion using Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) references and anti-serum. Antigen E content expressed as units of Antigen E per milliliter (U/ml) is printed on container label.
Studies indicate allergic individuals produce immunoglobulins of the IgE class in response to exposure to allergens. Subsequent exposure to the allergen results in a combination of allergen with IgE antibody fixed on mast cells or basophil membranes. This cross-linking results in stimulation of mast cell which leads to release and generation of pharmacologically active substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity reaction.3
The mode of action of immunotherapy with allergenic extracts is still under investigation. Subcutaneous injections of increasing doses of allergenic extract into patients with allergic disease have been shown to result in both humoral and cellular changes including the production of allergen-specific IgG antibodies, the suppression of histamine release from target cells, decrease in circulating levels of antigen specific IgE antibody over long periods of time and suppression of peripheral blood T-lymphocyte cell responses to antigen.10, 14, 15
Allergenic extract is used for diagnostic testing and for the treatment (immunotherapy) of patients whose histories indicate that upon natural exposure to the allergen, they experience allergic symptoms. Confirmation is determined by skin testing. Diagnostic use of allergenic extracts usually begins with direct skin testing. This product is not intended for treatment of patients who do not manifest immediate hypersensitivity reactions to the allergenic extract following skin testing.
Do not administer in the presence of diseases characterized by bleeding diathesis. Individuals with autoimmune disease may be at risk of exacerbating symptoms of the underlying disease, possibly due to routine immunization. Patients who have experienced a recent myocardial infarction may not be tolerant of immunotherapy. Children with nephrotic syndrome probably should not receive injections due to immunization causing exacerbation of nephrotic disease.
Extreme caution is necessary when using diagnostic skin tests or injection treatment in highly sensitive patients who have experienced severe symptoms or anaphylaxis by natural exposure, or during previous skin testing or treatment. IN THESE CASES THE POTENCY FOR SKIN TESTS AND THE ESCALATION OF THE TREATMENT DOSE MUST BE ADJUSTED TO THE PATIENT’S SENSITIVITY AND TOLERANCE.
Injections should never be given intravenously. A 5/8 inch, 25 gauge needle on a sterile syringe allows deep subcutaneous injection. Withdraw plunger slightly after inserting needle to determine if a blood vessel has been entered.
Proper measurement of dose and caution in making injection will minimize reactions. Adverse reactions to allergenic extracts are usually apparent within 20-30 minutes following injection of immunotherapy.
Extract should be temporarily withheld or dosage reduced in case of any of the following conditions: 1) flu or other infection with fever; 2) exposure to excessive amounts of allergen prior to injection; 3) rhinitis and/or asthma exhibiting severe symptoms; 4) adverse reaction to previous injection until cause of reaction has been evaluated by physician supervising patient’s immunotherapy program.
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