Amiodarone can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Fetal exposure may increase the potential for adverse experiences including cardiac, thyroid, neurodevelopmental, neurological and growth effects in neonates. Inform the patient of the potential hazard to the fetus if amiodarone is administered during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking amiodarone [see Pregnancy (8.1) ].
Perform close perioperative monitoring in patients undergoing general anesthesia who are on amiodarone therapy as they may be more sensitive to the myocardial depressant and conduction defects of halogenated inhalational anesthetics.
Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions have been reported with intravenous amiodarone including shock (sometimes fatal), cardiac arrest, and the following manifestations: hypotension, tachycardia, hypoxia, cyanosis, rash, flushing, hyperhidrosis and cold sweat.
- Hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]
- Hepatic injury [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ]
- Rhythm disturbances [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ]
- Pulmonary injury [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ]
- Thyroid injury [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ]
- Hypersensitivity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11) ]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In a total of 1836 patients in controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials, 14% of patients received intravenous amiodarone for at least one week, 5% received it for at least 2 weeks, 2% received it for at least 3 weeks, and 1% received it for more than 3 weeks, without an increased incidence of severe adverse reactions. The mean duration of therapy in these studies was 5.6 days; median exposure was 3.7 days.
The most important adverse reactions were hypotension, asystole/cardiac arrest/pulseless electrical activity (PEA), cardiogenic shock, congestive heart failure, bradycardia, liver function test abnormalities, VT, and AV block. Overall, treatment was discontinued for about 9% of the patients because of adverse reactions. The most common adverse reactions leading to discontinuation of intravenous amiodarone therapy were hypotension (1.6%), asystole/cardiac arrest/PEA (1.2%), VT (1.1%), and cardiogenic shock (1%).
Table 5 lists the most common (incidence ≥2%) adverse reactions during intravenous amiodarone therapy considered at least possibly drug-related. These data were collected in clinical trials involving 1836 patients with life-threatening VT/VF. Data from all assigned treatment groups are pooled because none of the adverse reactions appeared to be dose-related.
|Study Event||Controlled Studies (n = 814)||Open-Label Studies (n = 1022)||Total (n = 1836)|
|Body as a whole|
|Congestive heart failure||18||(2.2%)||21||(2%)||39||(2.1%)|
|Liver function tests abnormal||35||(4.2%)||29||(2.8%)||64||(3.4%)|
Other adverse reactions reported in less than 2% of patients receiving intravenous amiodarone in controlled and uncontrolled studies included the following: abnormal kidney function, atrial fibrillation, diarrhea, increased ALT, increased AST, lung edema, nodal arrhythmia, prolonged QT interval, respiratory disorder, shock, sinus bradycardia, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, thrombocytopenia, VF, and vomiting.
The following adverse reactions have been reported in the post-marketing experience during or in close temporal relationship to intravenous amiodarone administration. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: pancytopenia, neutropenia, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and agranulocytosis.
Cardiac Disorders: sinus node dysfunction (sinus arrest, sinoatrial block), intraventricular conduction disorders including bundle branch block and infra-HIS block, bradycardia (sometimes fatal), ventricular extrasystoles, and antegrade conduction via an accessory pathway.
Endocrine Disorders: syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).
Eye Disorders: visual field defect and blurred vision.
Gastrointestinal Disorders: pancreatitis.
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: infusion site reactions, including thrombosis, phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, cellulitis, pain, induration, edema, inflammation, urticaria, pruritus, erythema, pigment changes, hypoesthesia, skin sloughing, extravasation possibly leading to venous/infusion site necrosis, intravascular amiodarone deposition/mass (developed in the superior vena cava around a central venous catheter after long-term [28 days] amiodarone therapy administered through a central line), and granuloma.
Hepatobiliary Disorders: cholestasis, cirrhosis, jaundice, alkaline phosphatase and blood lactate dehydrogenase increase.
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: myopathy, muscle weakness, rhabdomyolysis, muscle spasms, and back pain.
Neoplasms Benign, Malignant and Unspecified (incl Cysts and Polyps) Disorders: thyroid nodules/thyroid cancer.
Nervous System Disorders: intracranial pressure increased, pseudotumor cerebri, tremor, dizziness and hypoesthesia.
Psychiatric Disorders: confusional state, hallucination, disorientation, and delirium.
Renal and Urinary Disorders: acute renal failure (sometimes fatal), renal impairment, renal insufficiency, and blood creatinine increased.
Reproductive Disorders and Breast Disorders: Epididymitis
Respiratory , Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: interstitial pneumonitis, bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (possibly fatal), pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage, pulmonary phospholipidoisis, pleural effusion, bronchospasm, dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis, wheezing, and hypoxia.
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: toxic epidermal necrolysis (sometimes fatal), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, skin cancer, pruritus, angioedema, and urticaria.
Vascular Disorders: vasculitis and flushing.
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