AMLODIPINE BESYLATE- amlodipine besylate tablet
1. INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Amlodipine besylate tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.
1.2. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Chronic Stable Angina
Amlodipine besylate tablets, USP are indicated for the symptomatic treatment of chronic stable angina. Amlodipine besylate tablets, USP may be used alone or in combination with other antianginal agents.
Vasospastic Angina (Prinzmetal’s or Variant Angina)
Amlodipine besylate tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of confirmed or suspected vasospastic angina. Amlodipine besylate tablets, USP may be used as monotherapy or in combination with other antianginal agents.
Angiographically Documented CAD
In patients with recently documented CAD by angiography and without heart failure or an ejection fraction <40%, amlodipine besylate tablets, USP are indicated to reduce the risk of hospitalization due to angina and to reduce the risk of a coronary revascularization procedure.
2. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The usual initial antihypertensive oral dose of amlodipine besylate tablets is 5 mg once daily with a maximum dose of 10 mg once daily.
Small, fragile, or elderly patients, or patients with hepatic insufficiency may be started on 2.5 mg once daily and this dose may be used when adding amlodipine besylate tablets to other antihypertensive therapy.
Adjust dosage according to each patient’s need. In general, titration should proceed over 7 to 14 days so that the physician can fully assess the patient’s response to each dose level. Titration may proceed more rapidly, however, if clinically warranted, provided the patient is assessed frequently.
The recommended dose for chronic stable or vasospastic angina is 5 to10 mg, with the lower dose suggested in the elderly and in patients with hepatic insufficiency. Most patients will require 10 mg for adequate effect . [see Adverse Reactions( 6)]
The recommended dose range for patients with coronary artery disease is 5 to10 mg once daily. In clinical studies, the majority of patients required 10 mg . [see Clinical Studies( 14.4)]
The effective antihypertensive oral dose in pediatric patients ages 6 to 17 years is 2.5 mg to 5 mg once daily. Doses in excess of 5 mg daily have not been studied in pediatric patients . [see Clinical Pharmacology( 12.4), Clinical Studies( 14.1)]
3. DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg Tablets
Amlodipine besylate tablets are contraindicated in patients with known sensitivity to amlodipine.
5. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Symptomatic hypotension is possible, particularly in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Because of the gradual onset of action, acute hypotension is unlikely.
5.2. Increased Angina or Myocardial Infarction
Worsening angina and acute myocardial infarction can develop after starting or increasing the dose of amlodipine besylate tablets, particularly in patients with severe obstructive coronary artery disease.
5.3. Beta-Blocker Withdrawal
Amlodipine is not a beta-blocker and therefore gives no protection against the dangers of abrupt beta-blocker withdrawal; any such withdrawal should be by gradual reduction of the dose of beta-blocker.
5.4. Patients with Hepatic Failure
Because amlodipine is extensively metabolized by the liver and the plasma elimination half-life (t 1/2) is 56 hours in patients with impaired hepatic function, titrate slowly when administering amlodipine besylate to patients with severe hepatic impairment.
6. ADVERSE REACTIONS
6.1. Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Amlodipine besylate tablets have been evaluated for safety in more than 11,000 patients in U.S. and foreign clinical trials. In general, treatment with amlodipine besylate tablets were well-tolerated at doses up to 10 mg daily. Most adverse reactions reported during therapy with amlodipine besylate tablets were of mild or moderate severity. In controlled clinical trials directly comparing amlodipine besylate tablets (N= 1730) at doses up to
10 mg to placebo (N= 1250), discontinuation of amlodipine besylate tablets due to adverse reactions was required in only about 1.5% of patients and was not significantly different from placebo (about 1%). The most common side effects are headache and edema. The incidence (%) of side effects that occurred in a dose related manner are as follows:
|Adverse Event||2.5 mg||5.0 mg||10.0 mg||Placebo|
Other adverse experiences that were not clearly dose related but were reported with an incidence greater than 1.0% in placebo-controlled clinical trials include the following:
|Amlodipine (%)||Placebo (%)|
For several adverse experiences that appear to be drug and dose related, there was a greater incidence in women than men associated with amlodipine treatment as shown in the following table:
|Male = %||Female = %||Male = %||Female = %|
The following events occurred in <1% but >0.1% of patients in controlled clinical trials or under conditions of open trials or marketing experience where a causal relationship is uncertain; they are listed to alert the physician to a possible relationship:
arrhythmia (including ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation), bradycardia, chest pain, hypotension, peripheral ischemia, syncope, tachycardia, postural dizziness, postural hypotension, vasculitis. Cardiovascular:
hypoesthesia, neuropathy peripheral, paresthesia, tremor, vertigo. Central and Peripheral Nervous System:
anorexia, constipation, dyspepsia, dysphagia, diarrhea, flatulence, pancreatitis, vomiting, gingival hyperplasia. Gastrointestinal: 1
allergic reaction, asthenia, back pain, hot flushes, malaise, pain, rigors, weight gain, weight decrease. General: 1
arthralgia, arthrosis, muscle cramps, myalgia. Musculoskeletal System: 1
sexual dysfunction (male and female), insomnia, nervousness, depression, abnormal dreams, anxiety, depersonalization. Psychiatric: 1
dyspnea, epistaxis. Respiratory System: 1
angioedema, erythema multiforme, pruritus, rash, rash erythematous, rash maculopapular. Skin and Appendages: 1 1
abnormal vision, conjunctivitis, diplopia, eye pain, tinnitus. Special Senses:
micturition frequency, micturition disorder, nocturia. Urinary System:
dry mouth, sweating increased. Autonomic Nervous System:
hyperglycemia, thirst. Metabolic and Nutritional:
leukopenia, purpura, thrombocytopenia. Hemopoietic:
These events occurred in less than 1% in placebo-controlled trials, but the incidence of these side effects was between 1% and 2% in all multiple dose studies. 1
The following events occurred in <0.1% of patients: cardiac failure, pulse irregularity, extrasystoles, skin discoloration, urticaria, skin dryness, alopecia, dermatitis, muscle weakness, twitching, ataxia, hypertonia, migraine, cold and clammy skin, apathy, agitation, amnesia, gastritis, increased appetite, loose stools, coughing, rhinitis, dysuria, polyuria, parosmia, taste perversion, abnormal visual accommodation, and xerophthalmia.
Other reactions occurred sporadically and cannot be distinguished from medications or concurrent disease states such as myocardial infarction and angina.
Amlodipine therapy has not been associated with clinically significant changes in routine laboratory tests. No clinically relevant changes were noted in serum potassium, serum glucose, total triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, or creatinine.
In the CAMELOT and PREVENT studies , the adverse event profile was similar to that reported previously (see above), with the most common adverse event being peripheral edema. [see Clinical Studies( 14.4)]
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