AMLODIPINE BESYLATE — amlodipine besylate tablet
Amlodipine besylate tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.
1.2 Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)Chronic Stable Angina
Amlodipine besylate tablets are indicated for the symptomatic treatment of chronic stable angina. Amlodipine may be used alone or in combination with other antianginal agents.
Vasospastic Angina (Prinzmetal’s or Variant Angina)
Amlodipine besylate tablets are indicated for the treatment of confirmed or suspected vasospastic angina. Amlodipine besylate may be used as monotherapy or in combination with other antianginal agents.
Angiographically Documented CAD
The usual initial antihypertensive oral dose of amlodipine amlodipine besylate tablets are 5 mg once daily with a maximum dose of 10 mg once daily.
Small, fragile, or elderly patients, or patients with hepatic insufficiency may be started on 2.5 mg once daily and this dose may be used when adding amlodipine besylate to other antihypertensive therapy.
Adjust dosage according to each patient’s need. In general, titration should proceed over 7 to 14 days so that the physician can fully assess the patient’s response to each dose level. Titration may proceed more rapidly, however, if clinically warranted, provided the patient is assessed frequently.
The recommended dose for chronic stable or vasospastic angina is 5 to 10 mg, with the lower dose suggested in the elderly and in patients with hepatic insufficiency. Most patients will require 10 mg for adequate effect [see Adverse Reactions (6)].[see Clinical Studies (14.4)].
The effective antihypertensive oral dose in pediatric patients ages 6 to 17 years is 2.5 mg to 5 mg once daily. Doses in excess of 5 mg daily have not been studied in pediatric patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4), Clinical Studies (14.1)].
Amlodipine besylate tablet is contraindicated in patients with known sensitivity to amlodipine besylate.
Symptomatic hypotension is possible, particularly in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Because of the gradual onset of action, acute hypotension is unlikely.
5.2 Increased Angina or Myocardial InfarctionWorsening angina and acute myocardial infarction can develop after starting or increasing the dose of amlodipine besylate, particularly in patients with severe obstructive coronary artery disease.
5.3 Beta-Blocker Withdrawal
Amlodipine besylate is not a beta-blocker and therefore gives no protection against the dangers of abrupt beta-blocker withdrawal; any such withdrawal should be by gradual reduction of the dose of beta-blocker.
5.4 Patients with Hepatic Failure
Because amlodipine besylate is extensively metabolized by the liver and the plasma elimination half-life (t1/2 ) is 56 hours in patients with impaired hepatic function, titrate slowly when administering amlodipine to patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Amlodipine besylate has been evaluated for safety in more than 11,000 patients in U.S. and foreign clinical trials. In general, treatment with amlodipine besylate was well-tolerated at doses up to 10 mg daily. Most adverse reactions reported during therapy with amlodipine besylate were of mild or moderate severity. In controlled clinical trials directly comparing amlodipine besylate (N=1730) at doses up to 10 mg to placebo (N=1250), discontinuation of amlodipine besylate due to adverse reactions was required in only about 1.5% of patients and was not significantly different from placebo (about 1%). The most common side effects are headache and edema. The incidence (%) of side effects that occurred in a dose related manner are as follows:
|Adverse Event||2.5 mg N=275||5 mg N=296||10 mg N=268||Placebo N=520|
Other adverse experiences that were not clearly dose related but were reported with an incidence greater than 1.0% in placebo-controlled clinical trials include the following:
|Amlodipine Besylate (%)(N=1730)||Placebo (%)(N=1250)|
For several adverse experiences that appear to be drug and dose related, there was a greater incidence in women than men associated with amlodipine treatment as shown in the following table:
|Adverse Event||Male=% (N=1218)||Female=% (N=512)||Male=% (N=914)||Female=% (N=336)|
Cardiovascular: arrhythmia (including ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation), bradycardia, chest pain, hypotension, peripheral ischemia, syncope, tachycardia, postural dizziness, postural hypotension, vasculitis.
Central and Peripheral Nervous System: hypoesthesia, neuropathy peripheral, paresthesia, tremor, vertigo.
Gastrointestinal: anorexia, constipation, dyspepsia,1 dysphagia, diarrhea, flatulence, pancreatitis, vomiting, gingival hyperplasia.
General: allergic reaction, asthenia,1 back pain, hot flushes, malaise, pain, rigors, weight gain, weight decrease.
Musculoskeletal System: arthralgia, arthrosis, muscle cramps,1 myalgia.
Psychiatric: sexual dysfunction (male1 and female), insomnia, nervousness, depression, abnormal dreams, anxiety, depersonalization.
Respiratory System: dyspnea,1 epistaxis.
Skin and Appendages: angioedema, erythema multiforme, pruritus,1 rash,1 rash erythematous, rash maculopapular.
Special Senses: abnormal vision, conjunctivitis, diplopia, eye pain, tinnitus.
Urinary System: micturition frequency, micturition disorder, nocturia.
Autonomic Nervous System: dry mouth, sweating increased.
Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia, thirst.
Hemopoietic: leukopenia, purpura, thrombocytopenia.
1 These events occurred in less than 1% in placebo-controlled trials, but the incidence of these side effects was between 1% and 2% in all multiple dose studies.
The following events occurred in <0.1% of patients: cardiac failure, pulse irregularity, extrasystoles, skin discoloration, urticaria, skin dryness, alopecia, dermatitis, muscle weakness, twitching, ataxia, hypertonia, migraine, cold and clammy skin, apathy, agitation, amnesia, gastritis, increased appetite, loose stools, coughing, rhinitis, dysuria, polyuria, parosmia, taste perversion, abnormal visual accommodation, and xerophthalmia.
Other reactions occurred sporadically and cannot be distinguished from medications or concurrent disease states such as myocardial infarction and angina.
Amlodipine besylate therapy has not been associated with clinically significant changes in routine laboratory tests. No clinically relevant changes were noted in serum potassium, serum glucose, total triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, or creatinine.
In the CAMELOT and PREVENT studies [see Clinical Studies (14.4)] , the adverse event profile was similar to that reported previously (see above), with the most common adverse event being peripheral edema.
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